SS NCO Hubert Busch, director crematoria
- Krematorien im Konzentrationslager Auschwitz.
- 39 one muffle furnaces of the company of Kori. H. Kori GmbH is a Berlin-based, specialized in the construction of the air heater company, which was established in 1887 in Berlin.
The H. Kori GmbH was initially specialized in incinerators for the removal of animal carcasses. After the activities of the company expanded the construction of installations for the incineration of waste of all kinds and crematoria. During the Holocaust, the company supplied (as well as the firm of j. A. topf and sons in Erfurt) cremation furnaces for the destruction process of concentration camp victims in the gas chamber buildings of the concentration and extermination camps. Kori installed including the crematorium furnaces in the Majdanek concentration camp and in the Pirna Tötungsanstalt Sonnenstein.
- So also the Berlin competitor Kori delivered dozens concentration camp stoves. However, the history of Kori, says historian Schuele, “is still not told”.
While Hüls was founded in 1938, it owed much to the 1888 invention of tires. Without tires and the consequent demand for rubber, there would have been no synthetic rubber; without synthetic rubber, there would have been no Hüls. The first patent for synthesizing rubber was filed in 1909, but the process was too expensive for commercial exploitation. After the automobile increased the need for tires, experiments began in earnest again. Based on the work of the Nobel prize-winners Carl Bosch, Fritz Haber, and Friedrich Bergius, Buna was created. First made in 1926, Buna was an economical synthetic rubber, based on coal and using sodium as a catalyst.
In the fall of 1935, the first experimental plant for the production of Buna was built by I.G. Farbenindustrie. A year later, the German government issued its second Four Year Plan, in which the importance of Buna production to the country’s strength was stressed. On May 9, 1938, Chemische Werke Hüls GmbH was founded specifically for the production of Buna, with a capital stock of 30 million marks. I.G. Farbenindustrie owned 74 percent and Bergwerksgesellschaft Hibernia AG owned 26 percent of the new company. The first managing directors were Otto Ambros and Friedrich Bruning, and on the board were Dr. Fritz ter Meer and Wilhelm Tengenmann. All four men were representatives of the shareholding companies.
Construction of new factories was difficult during wartime, yet labor was obtained because the Nazis urgently needed Buna. The factory was built very quickly and in August 1940 production began. The annual capacity for production was 18,000 tons of Buna. The capital stock was immediately increased to 80 million marks. The company also produced chlorine, antifreeze, and other chemicals. In 1941 the production of Buna was increased to 40,000 tons annually. From this time, the chemists at Hüls began to work on the production of solvents, softening agents, and resins. Production was increased to 50,000 tons in 1942 and capital was raised to 120 million.
It was not until 1943 that the war began to affect Hüls negatively. The company had great difficulty in obtaining raw materials and surviving bomb attacks. The worst was a heavy daylight air raid on June 11, 1943, when 1,560 bombs were dropped on Hüls factories. The works were devastated, 186 people were killed, and 752 were wounded. Production stopped for three months. In spite of heavier bombing of the hydrogenation plants to stop the supply of raw materials, by 1944 the Hüls works reached maximum production capacity again, though they were still a main target of the bomb attacks. On March 29, 1945 a special unit of the German Army appeared with orders to blow up all of Hüls. It was Hitler’s command that ‘the enemy should find nothing.’ The unit was persuaded to disobey these orders by Dr. Paul Baumann. Two days later, American troops marched into the factories.
Paul Baumann was one of the chemists who had worked on the development of Buna. He fought in World War I, then studied in Heidelberg with the Nobel prize-winner Philipp Lenard. Baumann received his doctorate in 1923, and first worked for I.G. Farbenindustrie, spending time at their offices in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. At Hüls he was quickly promoted to production manager. In 1945, when the British troops replaced those of the Americans, Baumann was made manager of works, then chairman of the board.
In 1945 the British, who were paying high prices for natural rubber at home, allowed the resumption of the production of Buna. At their orders, the company’s name changed to Chemische Werke Hüls. The Potsdam agreement then forbade the production of Buna in Germany, and in order to survive the company had to change its products immediately.
In November 1945 the entire company was taken over by the Allied authorities and put under a financial control office. The ‘de-Nazification’ included the dismissal of Hans Gunther and Ulrich Hoffman. Other dismissals were planned but, as they would have meant the administrative collapse of the company, were not effected.
The I.G. Farbenindustrie sales offices, Hüls’s main outlets, were closed by the Allies. Hüls then cooperated with other companies on sales, but as this was regarded as joint operations, it too was stopped. All production of Buna was formally stopped by the British in 1948, partly as English, French, and Dutch colonies were experiencing a natural rubber boom, but also because the production of synthetic rubber was seen as potentially useful in the rebuilding of a German military effort. Hüls was faced with large numbers of employees and not enough work for them. The company began to produce vinyl chloride, propylene oxide, emulsifiers, and the polyvinyl chloride called Vestolit, but even so in 1949, many employees were made redundant, and plant works capable of producing 900 tons had to be dismantled.
In 1948 Hüls rather cleverly created ‘produkt 1973,’ a synthetic rubber made by the same process as that for Buna but with a few steps reversed. (It was also called ‘umgekehrt Buna,’ literally ‘Backward Buna.’) This was to be used in linoleum. Both the forward and the backward Buna required butadien for production. In 1949 the Allied governments banned all butadien. Hüls protested, but, as it was one of the few companies to escape the total disbanding of its works by the allies, it restrained its protests. Generally, Hüls was better treated than other companies after the war, in part because of its ability to change its production to acceptable areas, and of the ability of Paul Baumann to get on so peaceably with the Allies. Additionally, Hüls was a major producer of fertilizers, which were considered vital to the agricultural economy.
The I.G. Farbenindustrie was disbanded by the Allies in Frankfurt in 1952. On December 19, 1953 Hüls was released from Allied control and converted to a joint stock company with a capital stock of DM 120 million. The following year, the company invested DM 85 million to expand plant production capacity. New products included Vestolen, a high-density polyethylene, and Vestopal, a polyester resin.
For some time, the production of Buna had ceased to be profitable, and the company had been working on ways to improve and modernize the antiquated production procedures. A new plant was proposed and a new company, Bunawerke Hüls GmbH, was formed in 1955. The shareholders were Hüls, with 50 percent, and its old partners from I.G. Farbenindustrie, in the guise of the company’s three successors. Dr. Baumann was the managing director. In a very short time, Bunawerke was the largest producer of synthetic rubber in Europe.
Hüls grew apace. It built Power Station II, the first coal power station to operate on supercritical steam. In 1956 Quimica Industrial Huels do Brasil Ltda. was formed in Brazil. Plants were either converted or constructed to produce reinforcing agents, phthalic anhydride, and more acetylene. In 1961 the capital stock was increased to DM 120 million and Faserwerke Hüls GmbH was founded, with a capital of DM 33.6 million, to produce synthetic fibers.
In 1959, a quarter of a century after Hüls had begun manufacturing heavy detergents, it was discovered that they were major polluters of the environment. A law was passed in 1961 requiring that all detergents be reducible by 80 percent by the existing sewage plants. Three years later Hüls produced Marlon, a biodegradable surfactant. The whole episode was a minor setback in the phenomenalgrowth of Hüls, which continued to form new companies, introduce new chemicals, and establish new partnerships until, in 1971, its capital reached DM 310 million.
Parent Veba planned to invest DM 9.6 billion in Hüls for the period from 1997 to 2001.
In early 1998 the announcement that Degussa AG and Hüls AG planned to merge was made.
Degussa Bank GmbH; Infracor GmbH; CREAVIS GmbH; ASTA Medica AG; Stockhausen GmbH & Co. KG; Röhm GmbH; Vestolit GmbH; OXENO Olefinchemie GmbH; Phenolchemie GmbH & Co. KG; Cerdec AG.
Health and Nutrition; Specialty Products; Polymers and Intermediates; Performance Materials.
BASF Aktiengesellschaft; Bayer AG; Hoechst AG.
Mayer-Wegelin, Heinz, Aller Anfang ist schwer: Bilder zur hundertjährigen Geschichte der Degussa,Frankfurt am Main: Degussa, 1973.
Pinnov, Hermann, Degussa 1873-1948,Frankfurt am Main: Degussa, 1948.
Wolf, Mechthild, It All Began in Frankfurt: Landmarks in the History of Degussa AG,Frankfurt am Main: Degussa, 1989.
Name of the camp – Arbeitslager Bobrek Commandant of the camp -
SS-Scharführer Hermann Buch Location – Bobrek near Oswiecim Employer – Siemens-Schuckertwerke GmbH
Buna plant in the concentration camp of Auschwitz III was finally by the IG Farben Monowitz. Although for the construction of this factory around 20,000 to 25,000 forced laborers systematically had to work to death, it never came to completion. The average life expectancy of a slave worker in the construction of this work was three months and the labor camp had up to one hundred thousand prisoners. This work was the largest construction site in Europe in 1944.
The Kriegsmarine was involved during the war in atrocities and Holocaust. One notable example are Liepāja massacres where Jews, Gypsies, communists, the mentally ill and so-called “hostages” were mass murdered. About 5,000 of the 5,700 Jews trapped in Liepāja were shot, most of them in 1941. As a naval base, Liepāja came under the command of the German navy, the Kriegsmarine. Lieutenant commander (Korvettenkapitan) Stein was appointed as town commandant On 1 July 1941, Stein ordered that ten hostages be shot for every act of sabotage, and further put civilians in the zone of targeting by declaring that Red Army soldiers were hiding among them in civilian attire. This was the first announcement in Latvia of a threat to shoot hostages. On 5 July 1941 Korvettenkapitan Brückner, who had taken over for Stein issued a set of anti-Jewish regulations. These were published in a local newspaper, Kurzemes Vārds. Summarized these were as follows:
- All Jews must wear the yellow star on the front and back of their clothing;
- Shopping hours for Jews were restricted to 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon. Jews were only allowed out of their residences for these hours and from 3:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m.;
- Jews were barred from public events and transportation and were not to walk on the beach;
- Jews were required to leave the sidewalk if they encountered a German in uniform;
- Jewish shops were required to display the sign “A Jewish-owned business” in the window;
- Jews were to surrender all radios, typewriters, uniforms, arms and means of transportation
22 July 1941: “… Here about 8,000 Jews … with present SS personnel this would take about 1 year, which is untenable for pacification of Libau.” 27 July 1941: “Jewish problem Libau largely solved by execution of about 1,100 male Jews by Riga SS commando on 24 and 25.7.”
The shootings continued till December, and additionally Romani people were mass murdered as well.
Eugen Wannenmacher assumed the Office of President of the German Association of Parodontology (ARPA).
On May 5, 1944, Himmler explained to Generals in Sonthofen that perseverance in the bombing war has only been possible because the Jews in Germany have been discarded.
The Jewish question has been solved within Germany itself and in general within the countries occupied by Germany. [...] You can understand how difficult it was for me to carry out this military order which I was given and which I implemented out of a sense of obedience and absolute conviction. -HH speech in Sondhofen.
Werner Alfred Wenn, not much info. Himmler’s asst.
^ Smith, Peterson: Heinrich Himmler, p. 251 f.
Horthy himself could not have been clearer in his memoirs: “Not before August,” he wrote, “did secret information reach me of the horrible truth about the extermination camps.”^ Horthy:, Admiral Nicholas (2000). Admiral Nicholas Horthy, Memoirs. Nicholas Horthy, Miklós Horthy, Andrew L. Simon, Nicholas Roosevelt (illustrated ed.). Simon Publications LLC. pp. 348. ISBN 0-9665734-3-9.
Ernst Klee with the Goetheplakette (Goethe Medal) for his book, Deutsche Medizin im Dritten Reich. Karrieren vor und nach 1945 (German Medicine in the Third Reich. Careers before and after 1945).
The SS physician Dr. Hoven said before the Nuremberg Tribunal of this. “IG was anxious this fact to hide from the outside world- but to cover up the circumstances of their attempts ..to draw the profit for themselves. Not the SS but ** IG farben took the initiative in these experiments in the concentration camps. “
many Nazi doctors slipped into comfortable and respected positions after the war. For example, in East Germany, Herman Voss became a prominent anatomist and in West Germany
On 12 March 1945, ICRC president Jacob Burckhardt received a message from SS General Ernst Kaltenbrunner accepting the ICRC’s demand to allow delegates to visit the concentration camps. This agreement was bound by the condition that these delegates would have to stay in the camps until the end of the war. Louis Haefliger prevented the forceful eviction or blasting of Mauthausen-Gusen by alerting American troops, thereby saving the lives of about 60,000 inmatesIn 1996 renewed attention focused on the Helmbrechts sub-concentration camp. Two stories broke about former SS-Aufseherin Ingeborg Schimming-Assmuss who was accused of killing four prisoners at the camp and on the death march into Czechoslovakia. One article began “DEATH FORSTALLED the LAW.” “The [camp] called her ‘the Terrible Inge’- Inge Assmuss, earlier Schimming, one of 27 [female guards] inside the external bearing Helmbrechts.” She was hidden from prosecution by the state security service in Berlin for over fifty years. The first record of murder was done by Ingeborg, as well as the other female guards in Helmbrechts on February 24, 1945. She and the other overseers flogged a female inmate, Dr. Alexandra Samoylenko to death for escaping. The act was tolerated and ordered by camp commandant Alois Doerr. Another former prisoner related, “…on the first day after the march [began] an Aufseherin-she was called Inge-tore my completely weakened friend Bassia from my arms with a switch and dragged her into the forest. I heard a shot. Subsequently, the Aufseherin returned alone.” Two other inmates also related to Allied forces that the Aufseherin killed other internees. In 1951 a warrant was issued for Ingeborg’s arrest to the GDR. Authorities in East Berlin refused to hand over the former SS employee, saying that ‘she works for us.’In 1989 the Berlin Wall fell and Inge was still living in East Berlin, scarcely fifty meters from the former wall. In 1994 she was discovered living in Berlin-Pankow. In 1996 Ingeborg Schimming-Assmuss died, a free woman. The German government was in the process of prosecuting the former female guard, but as the title of the article stated, death stopped all proceedings. She was seventy-four years old