Romersa, Mission for Mussolini, Nazi radiation bomb; Kammler ; Buchenwald; Majdanek (Maidanek)

Hans Friedrich Karl Franz Kammler (* August 26th 1901 in Stettin , † unknown, death, judicial declaration on May 9th 1945 by decision of the district court of Berlin-Charlottenburg on 7 September 1948), was a German architect, director of construction and military projects in German Reich , SS Group leader and General of the Waffen-SS Division in a rocket launcher. As head of the construction of the SS, he was responsible for all the concentration camp ‘s buildings, including the crematoria and gas chambers . At war’s end, he ordered a massacre of 208 unarmed civilians in Warstein of 21 to 23 March 1945.

Educational background and life until 1933
At the birth of Hans was the father Franz Kammler lieutenant of the German army and rose to the rank of colonel of infantry and later at the police. From 1908 to 1918 Hans Kammler attended school and humanistic schools in Bydgoszcz , Ulm and Gdansk , where he took off the Graduate 1919th
Kammler was national conservative-minded and came so very early in February 1919 as a volunteer in the second Hussars Regiment “Queen Victoria of Prussia,” No. 2 one. Because of the imminent demobilization of his unit, he moved from late May to late July 1919 to the Rossbach Freikorps in border protection . In October 1919, Kammler a degree in Architecture with specialization in structural engineering at the TH Danzig – a term he studied at the Technical University of Munich . During the study Kammler was a member of the dueling fraternity ATV Cimbria. On 25 October 1923, he completed degree at the Technical University of Gdansk with the degree from the engineer. [1]
From 1924 to 1925 he was with the initial position Regierungsbauführer in the Prussian civil service in buildings constructed. From February 1924 to February 1925 he had the construction management of large settlement Zehlendorf held. From 1925 to 1928 he designed and oversaw the construction of settlements, including Berlin and Bochum and he participated in competitions for general development plans and the execution of large buildings. On 4 February 1928 was the state examination and was appointed government architect. From April 1928 to March 1931 he took a position as a civil servant and was part-time scientific officer at the Imperial Research Society for Efficiency in Construction and Housing act. strength of the young Archtitects was in the planning and organization of work processes in large buildings . [2]

On 14 June 1930, he married Jutta Horn (born April 12, 1908 in Naumburg ). Kammler, the couple had several children.
From 1 April 1931 to 1st September 1933 Kammler worked as a clerk in the Foundation for the Advancement of Building Research in Berlin , at the Ministry of Labour was located. [3] On 29 November 1932 received his doctorate he taught at the Technical University of Hanover for the Doctor of Engineering. [4]

Involvement with the Nazis and career advancement [ Edit ]
Kammlers SS-Range [5] [6]
Date Rang
20. April 1936 SS-Untersturmführer
1. August 1940 SS-Standartenführer
1. June 1941 SS-Oberführer
20. April 1942 SS Brigade Commander and Major General of the Waffen-SS
30. January 1944 SS-group leader and lieutenant general of the Waffen-SS
1. March 1945 SS Group leader and general of the Waffen-SS
Towards the end of the Weimar Republic to radicalized political Kammler. Kammler was in early March 1932 in the Nazi party a (Membership 1,011,855) and 20 May 1933 in the SS (SS-Nr. 113 619). [5]

From 1931 to 1933 he worked as a clerk in the Greater Berlin Gauleiter of the Nazi Party. He was there and in the SS in many different areas of work volunteers. Before the takeover by the Nazis , he was the Greater Berlin Gau in the engineering department working for. At times he was in the SS for his assault and his standard for the detection of Aryan descent responsible. From 1933 to 1936 he was Head of the Department of Housing and Human Settlements in the Greater Berlin Gauleiter of the Nazi Party. In 1937 he became speaker training for the Berlin police as. Of 1933, Kammler was charged by his party the Reich Federation of allotment holders and small settlers, who had over a million members.
On 10 October Kammler in the Reich Ministry of Food and Agriculture (RMEL) Date. He was secretary for Rural Settlements in the Department VII Associated were a number of important items such as including the head of the Reich Committee for Bauvergabe expert, member of the Senate of the German Academy of Building Research, liaison officer of the Empire RMEL to all ministries in the building code. In August 1934 the Governing Council in RMEL Kammler was appointed. On 1 June 1936, Kammler as a consultant for construction affairs in the Reich Air Ministry, RLM) was added (. On 1 November 1936 was promoted to government building officer and 1st June 1937 to the upper government building officer. In 1939 he became a group leader in the construction RLM promoted.

On 1 August 1940 was to Kammler SS Main Office administration and business transferred. On 1 June 1941 he joined the Waffen-SS and became the head of the SS Main Office for Budget and Construction appointed. After the founding of the SS Economic and Administration Main Office (WVHA) in early February 1942, he directed the Office Group C (construction) of the WVHA to war. [7]

Here he led the overall supervision of all concentration camp construction projects, including the gas chambers and crematoria, which is why he “technocrat of destruction” are can as well. [8] for example, he ordered the late summer of 1942 in which plans for the new crematoria at Auschwitz-Birkenau to revise its previously projected to Kremierungsleistung of 2650 corpses a day (80000/Monat) appeared insufficient to him. [9] In addition, he was general secretary for the German construction program of the leader on the staff of Dr. Robert Ley .

Since August 1943 Kammler was responsible for the development of underground production of A4-rocket program . On 1 September 1943 he was the Reich Leader SS Heinrich Himmler on the “Special Representative of the Reich Leader SS for the A-4 program” under SS Group leader Oswald Pohl appointed. [10] In Kamm’s leadership began underground relocation of missile production in the tunnels of the Kohnstein . [11 ] Albert Speer , identified by the war, the so-called ” Central Works “at Nordhausen as” real-time action. ” The underground factory was unprecedented in Europe and was “unsurpassed even by American terms” there. [12]

With B8 Rock Crystal Kammler created in 1944 one of the largest and most modern underground factories for Me-262 jet-fighter planes in St. Georgen / Gusen near Mauthausen . [13]

In August 1944 he was responsible for the use of V2 rocket had been assigned. [7] From September 1944 were rocket attacks on London , Paris and later in Antwerp and Brussels instead. Kammler was to the SS-Division zV retaliation) is assumed to have been (. It was several mortar batteries. The staff was the beginning of 1945 about 11,000 men, the missile sites were located in late 1944 in the Netherlands, Belgium and West Germany. With the advance of the Allies had the missile sites in Belgium and the Netherlands to be abandoned, and the positions in the west of Germany had to be evacuated.

Kammler was on the retreat with his staff in the near Warstein. There, troops arrived, the SS troops on Russian foreign workers who were also in retreat and camps were housed in makeshift. In the Arnsberg Forest (including Warstein and Suttrop) Kammler was in three shootings of 21 to 23 März 1945 208 members of these gangs of foreign workers, including women and children shot, because they had committed excesses allegedly. [14]

Kammler’s death
On 3 April 1945, Kammler was the last time when Hitler and made him obviously hopes. “Kammler performs excellently, and you set him on high hopes.” ( Goebbels , diary April 4, 1945). While Kammler in Hitler’s bunker , where the General was still dashing to, he indicated on 13 April compared to spear his future plans at. The war was lost, and it would be better to sell even now. He wanted in connection with the Allies and contact them weapons technology in exchange for his personal freedom latest offer. [15]

After 23 April 1945 Kammler went first to Ebensee in Austria , where a meeting of SS officers came, and the morning of 4 May, after Prague . Compared with the journalist Gunter d’Alquen Kammler predicted that “we will do something in Prague.” [16] On the evening of 4 May began of the Prague Uprising . The last German resistance was the invasion of the Red Army on 9 May 1945 broken.

Kammler is on the evening of 9 May 1945 suicide [17] have committed. This was so in the trial of the subordinates Kammler’s because of his unit of 20 from to 22 March perpetrated the massacre of foreign workers in the Arnsberg Forest is, on 9 Arnsberg began in December 1957. This district court ruling in the case of the detained, that is accompanied by his aide-de-camp Kammler and a driver beginning of May 1945 in Prague and the Prague uprising and was the surrender of German forces saw the . On 9 May he escaped with two cars from the city. After he already had said, “it was for him no purpose,” he was in a wooded area south of Prague, stopped by. He called companion, on his own in Germany eke by, and went into the forest. Shortly thereafter, he was there by his aide and the driver found dead. He had apparently committed suicide with cyanide using. The body was then hastily from the present spot buried. By order of the District Court Berlin-Charlottenburg , 7 September 1948 is at the request of the widow Jutta Kammler Hans Kammler’s death for the ninth time of death May 1945 was determined by a court. The body Kammler was never found. After the war there were always new versions of death, which were very inconsistent in part. It is clear that Kammler’s track in the last days of the war in Bohemia lost. A Czech government commission was the sixties, none of the versions of the whereabouts Kammler confirm. 1947/48 led the military intelligence service of the U.S. Army (CIC) study of Kammler’s fate in ****relation to the smuggling of nuclear material by with. It was assumed that they had succeeded Kammler, hiding in Austria and the Soviet Union on the transfer of valuable documents and construction documents in the hearing to stand with [18] .

Literature
Michael Thad Allen: The Business of Genocide – The SS, Slave Labour and the Concentration Camps, London 2002
Naasner Walter (ed.) SS and SS-economic management – the SS Economic Administration Main Office and its supervision are under economic enterprises , Droste Verlag, Dusseldorf 1998, writings of the Federal Archives: 45a, ISBN 3-7700-1603-3 .
********Rainer Frobe: Hans Kammler, technocrat of the destruction , in: Robert Smelser, Enrico Syring (eds.): The SS elite under the skull. 30 CVs , Paderborn 2000
Tom Agoston: devil or a technocrat? Hitler’s eminence grise , Mittler & Son, ISBN 3-8132-0432-4
Rainer Karlsch: Hitlers Bombe , DVA 2005, ISBN 3-421-05809-1
Rainer Karlsch, Heiko Petermann (Eds.): For and against Hitler’s bomb , 2007 Waxmann Verlag Muenster / New York, ISBN 3-8309-1893-3 .
Ernst Klee : The Encyclopedia of People to the Third Reich: Who was that before and after 1945. Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2005, ISBN 3-596-16048-0 .
Niels Gutschow: Procedure delusion. Architects are planning Germanized East 1939-1945 , Bauwelt foundations 115, Birkhäuser 2001, ISBN 3-7643-6390-8
Jens-Christian Wagner (ed.): Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp from 1943 to 1945 accompanying the permanent exhibition in the Memorial Mittelbau-Dora. Wallenstein, Göttingen 2007, ISBN 978-3-8353-0118-4 .
**Reiner Merkel: Hans Kammler – Manager of death. A “German” career. Literaturverlag August von Goethe, Frankfurt am Main 2010, ISBN 978-3-8372-0817-7 .

↑ Rainer Frobe: Hans Kammler, technocrat of the destruction , in: Robert Smelser, Enrico Syring (eds.): The SS elite under the skull. 30 CVs , Paderborn 2000, p. 306 f.
↑ Rainer Frobe: Hans Kammler, technocrat of the destruction , in: Robert Smelser, Enrico Syring (eds.): The SS elite under the skull. 30 CVs , Paderborn 2000, p. 307
↑ Andreas Schulz, Günter Wegmann, William Zinke: The Generals of the Waffen-SS and the police: The military careers of the generals, and the doctors, veterinary surgeons, directors, judges, and ministry officials in the rank of general, volume 2 in the series: Germany’s generals and admirals, edited by Dermot Bradley, Bissendorf Biblio-Verlag 2005, ISBN 3-7648-2592-8 , p. 441-457
↑ Hans Kammler: For the evaluation of site development for the large urban settlement . Dissertation, TH Hannover 1932
↑ a b Naasner Walter (ed.): SS-SS Economy and Administration , Dusseldorf 1998, p. 338F.
↑ top group leaders / generals of the SS / police / Waffen-SS
↑ a b Naasner Walter (ed.): SS-SS Economy and Administration , Dusseldorf 1998, p. 340f.
↑ Rainer Frobe: Hans Kammler, technocrat of the destruction , in: Robert Smelser, Enrico Syring (eds.): The SS elite under the skull. 30 CVs , Paderborn 2000
http://www.holocaust-history.org/auschwitz/topf/topf-8-9-42.jpg
↑ Letter from Himmler to Speer, 21 August 1943, BA Berlin, BDC SSO Dr. Hans Kammler
↑ Heinz Dieter Hölsken, the V-weapons development – propaganda – war effort, Stuttgart 1984, Michael Neufeld, The Rocket and the Reich, Berlin 1995; Volkhard Bode, Gerhard Kaiser, missile tracks: Peenemünde from 1936 to 1994, Berlin 1995, Jens-Christian Wagner, Production of death. The Mittelbau-Dora, Wallenstein 2,001th
↑ Letter from Speer to Kammler of 17 December 1943, BArch Berlin light field, R 3, No. 1585
↑ Rudolf A. Haunschmied, Jan-Ruth Mills, Siegi Witzany-Durda: St. Georgen-Gusen-Mauthausen – Concentration Camp Mauthausen Reconsidered . BoD, Norderstedt 2008, ISBN 978-3-8334-7440-8 . S. 127ff
↑ Arnsberger Rundschau on January 29, 1959
↑ Cf Albert Speer, a slave state
↑ memo Jürgen Thorwald with Gunter d’Alquen of 13-14. March 1951, ICH, Munich, ZS 2 / I, Bl 71
↑ The mirror , edition of 11 December 1957, p. 34
↑ u.a. auch Brief Report: Transfer by SD from Tucheler Heide to Italy, Headquarters USSAF in Europe 19. August 1947, NA Washington, RG 319, Entry 134 A, Box 2829

—-
Luigi Romersa


Video in italian, featuring Kammler , Diebner, and the bomb.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/worl­d/2005/sep/30/books.italy //Lt. Luigi Romersa
Mission for Mussolini, 2006 Video on History channel.
So far I can’t find the latter in English.

Italian Journalist witnessed Nazi ‘dirty bomb’ experiment, in which radiation was irradiated. Source: Rainer Karlsch, “Hitler’s Bomb“.

Kurt Diebner, Nazi nuclear physicist and Hans Kammler exploded the bomb near Ohrdruf, Mar 3, 1945. 500 Russian Pows were incinerated while testing it. Kammler wanted a nuclear warhead for the V-2 bomb. The Soviets were used as ‘guinea pigs’ and died horribly.

The US ended up getting Diebner along with the other scientists. But the video, although it makes mention of Kammler, does not indicate his fate.

Mussolini acknowledged the bomb existed publicly, Dec 16,1944. He claimed Hitler’s ‘new weapons’ would be a ‘redemption’ for Fascists. He admitted there were three of them.
—————-
Testimony of Pister , Commandant of Buchenwald:

“I heard the wrost things concerning the treatment of prisoners. Commandant Koch seemed to have been under the impression that he had the right to carry out mistreatments on his own initiative perhaps to save himself the trouble of making a report to the higher authorities.

I immediately issued an order that mistreatment would be severely punished. I referred to an order personally issued by the Fuhrer that read, “I am the one who decides about the life or death of a prisoner — also my representative appointed by myself (Himmler)”.

“For me, as for every man, orders were sacred and had to be carried out.”
Prosecutor: “Even thought you knew they were wrong, is that correct?”

“How should I know if an order given from the highest headquarters is illegal? Every one of us took an oath that we woudl follow the orders of the Fuhrer without hesitation… I let orders from above be carried out without hesitation.”
“You knew that according to the Hague Convention an occupying power must respect the rights and lives and religious convictions of persons living in the occupied zone, did you not?”

“First of all, I did not know the Hague Convention. Furthermore, I did not bring these people to Buchenwald.”

Justice at Dachau, Joshua Greene, 2003

You can see the self-rationalizations going on, the twisting of logic in order to save his neck. But at least he did admit who gave the orders to kill the people at Buchenwald : Hitler and Himmler.

from “Hans Kammler, Russian Wiki”

Shortly after the war into the hands of American counterintelligence falls right hand Kammler, William Voss. During the interrogation, he reports the existence of Spetsshtaba Kammler at “Skoda”. However, agents are so bleak, to post on an ad hoc group that has an unusual military secrets that he had the impression that they already know everything.

Foss offers to throw all the forces in search of Kammler, “until it was seized by Russian”, and once again the agents never show him any interest. And these are people who represent the strategic interests of the country, “head large predatory operation of the time with the army navy and air forces, as well as civilians.”

In this regard, the memory comes instantly leap to the East 16 th Armored Division of Patton’s Third Army. Completely ignoring the agreements signed between the Czech government in exile and the Soviet Union, troops of 16 Armoured Division, moving to the east of Nordhausen, May 6, 1945 crossed the Czech border and enter into Pilsen, located in the heart of the Soviet occupation zone. U.S. troops seize six-day plant “Skoda”, until May 12, 1945 there does not appear part of the Red Army. After protests from the Soviet Union, the Third Army had to leave. Agree that the six days – a short period.

August 29, 1945, General Mac Donald posted at the headquarters of U.S. Air Forces in Europe, a list of six underground factories, which by that time managed to penetrate. On each of them until the last day of the war produced aircraft engines and other specialized equipment for the Luftwaffe. Each of these plants are served from five to twenty-six miles in length. Tunnel size ranged from four to twenty meters in width and from five to fifteen meters in height, the size of shops – from 13000 to 25000 square meters.

However, in mid-October in the “Preliminary reporting of underground factories and laboratories in Germany and Austria”, sent to the headquarters of U.S. Air Force, stated that the last inspection “revealed a large number of German underground factories than previously thought.” Underground facilities were found not only in Germany and Austria, but also in France, Italy, Hungary and Czechoslovakia. Further in the report stated:

“Although the Germans to March 1944 were not engaged in large-scale construction of underground factories by the end of the war they managed to run about a hundred and forty-three such plants. It was discovered 107 more plants built or laid at the end of the war, this can add another 600 caves and mines, many of which were turned into belts and laboratories for the production of weapons. “One can only imagine what would have happened if the Germans had gone underground before the war” –

the author concludes the reports, apparently struck by the scale of German underground construction.

Another link in the chain of strange circumstances connected with the history of General Kammler is an almost total obliteration of the name and its role in the history of the Third Reich. Very strange is that inexplicable ease with which this name was forgotten after the war ended. But, as we remember this extraordinary man was one of the most powerful and influential government officials of the Third Reich. In the process of searching for information about Kammler, we have already mentioned Tom Agoston learned that his name not even mentioned at the Nuremberg trials – an incredible fact given the critical role played by the man in the circles close to Hitler. Moreover, there is no indication that he even tried to look like other war criminals.

**The fog begins to dissipate in part due to information provided by the Polish scientist, Igor Witkowski, have undertaken their own research in this area. According to sources, during the interrogation of *Rudolf Schuster [(no such person? listed?)] – a senior official from the Ministry of Security of the Third Reich, which was attended by head of the Polish military mission in Berlin, Ya’qub Praveen General and Colonel Vladislav Shimanskiy, received information about the existence of so-called. “Master Plan – 1945”, and operate within it “a special evacuation team, which included Schuster was June 4, 1944. This information caused answered by a serious concern, as Praveen Shimanskaya and found out that a “Master Plan – 1945” was Martin Bormann.

[Edit] Notes
1. ↑ Der Spiegel, Ausgabe vom 11. Dezember 1957, S. 34.
2. ↑ Rainer Fröbe: Hans Kammler, Technokrat der Vernichtung, in: Robert Smelser; Enrico Syring (Hg.): Die SS. Elite unterm Totenkopf. 30 Lebensläufe, Paderborn 2000, S. 306-307.
3. ↑ Zaleski, KA SS. Security detachments NSDAP. M., 2005. S. 270.
[Edit] References
Zaleski KA “security detachments of Nazism, Veche, 2009 (p.127)
Rainer Fröbe: Hans Kammler, Technokrat der Vernichtung, in: Robert Smelser; Enrico Syring (Hg.): Die SS. Elite unterm Totenkopf. 30 Lebensläufe, Paderborn 2000.
Tom Agoston: Teufel oder Technokrat? Hitlers graue Eminenz. Berlin, Mittler, 1993.
Reiner Merkel: Hans Kammler – Manager des Todes. Eine “deutsche” Karriere. August von Goethe Literaturverlag, Frankfurt am Main 2010.

majdanek, russian wiki: ***

July 17, 1941 Adolf Hitler Heinrich Himmler gave the order for police supervision of captured German eastern territories. The same day, Himmler appointed Odilo Globocnik, commandant of Lublin and the SS officer, his deputy at strengthening the position of the SS and police in the conquered eastern area. The center of this activity was to be the city of Lublin, to be complete Germanization. Ambitious plans to build a “new” Lublin were performed hands concentration camp inmates.

Order on the establishment of the camp was given July 20, 1941 Odilo Globocnik Heinrich Himmler during a visit to Lublin. At the disposal of it was about creating a concentration camp, designed for 25-50 thousand prisoners who were to work on the construction of buildings for the SS and police. In fact, the camp was built under the guidance of an engineer, an *** SS officer Hans Kammler. September 22, 1941 Kammler gave instructions on construction of the camp, designed for 5 thousand prisoners. After the seizure of a huge number of Soviet prisoners of war in an environment near Kiev, the plans were changed Kammler September 27, 1941: “According to the order from Berlin to Auschwitz, Lublin and the need to immediately create a POW camp for 50 thousand each …”

A week later, began construction of both camps. In early November, Kammler ordered the expansion of the camp to 125 thousand in December to 150 thousand, and in March 1942 to 250 thousand jobs for Soviet prisoners. Only part of the plans Kammler was implemented. In mid-December 1941 were built barracks for 20 thousand prisoners of war. In the intolerable conditions of the construction camp takes about 2 thousands of Soviet prisoners of war. By mid-November, of which only 500 people survived, of whom 30% were inoperable. Since mid-December they were joined by 150 Jews. At the same time there is an epidemic of typhus, and then in January – February, all prisoners-builders camps died.

The camp had an area of 95 hectares. The concentration camp was divided into five sections, one of them was for women. There were many different buildings, namely: 22 barracks for the prisoners, 2 administrative barracks, 227 factory and manufacturing workshops. At the camp there were 10 branches: Budzyn (under Krasnikov) Grubeshov, Lublin, Plaszow (near Krakow), herbalists (under Wieprz), etc. The camp inmates were engaged in forced labor in a factory producing uniforms and arms factory “Steyer-Daimler. ”

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