Holocaust in Baltics; Updated!

Stahlecker reported in the winter of 1941 to Berlin that his Einatzgruppe A had done an exceptional job in the field and murdered nearly an horrific 250,000 Jewish citizens in the Baltic states
http://hubpages.com/hub/Arjas-Kommando-Hitlers-Latvian-Executioners

Bruno Jadicke, another nazi, Holocaust in Latvia

Baltics:
In April 1941, on the eve on the German invasion, Alfred Rosenberg [dead], Reich minister for the Occupied Eastern territories, a Baltic German, born and raised in Tallinn, Estonia, laid out his plans for the East. According to Rosenberg a future policy was created:

Germanization (Eindeutschung) of the “racially suitable” elements.
Colonization by Germanic peoples.
Exile, deportations of undesirable elements.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_occupation_of_Estonia_during_World_War_II

The training and replacement units of the division based at Klooga under the command of Sturmbannführer Georg Ahlemann (d. 1991) provided guards for the perimeters : 20th Waffen division , wiki

Evald Mikson (Icelandic: Eðvald Hinriksson), (12 July [O.S. 29 June] 1911, Tartu, Livonia, Russian Empire – 27 December 1993, Reykjavík, Iceland) was a goalkeeper in the Estonian national football team,  winning 7 caps between 1934 and 1938. He has been accused of playing an active  role in the murder of Jews in Estonia during his service as Deputy Chief of the  Estonian Sicherheitspolizei in the Tallinn-Harju  district during World War II.[1]

Mikson has been accused  by the Simon Wiesenthal Center of committing  serious war crimes against Jews during the Second  World War, when he was working as Deputy Head of Police in Tallinn/Harjumaa. At the end of the war, he escaped to Sweden, where he was considered an  undesired person and war criminal after being questioned by a Stockholm court.  There was never any question of extradition to the Soviet Union. In 1946 he was transported to the  Norwegian border where a boat to Venezuela waited in Halden. However, the boat stranded in Iceland where he  remained until his death. An application for a visa to the United States was denied in  1947, after information on his background as war criminal had been distributed  via FBI[citation  needed].

In 1993, the Icelandic government set up a war crime investigation against  Mikson, but he died before coming before court.

Estonian Historical  Commission for the Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity confirmed that  Mikson was guilty of war crimes.[1]

Ain Ervin Mere, d. 1969, free in UK.
Estonia became a part of the Reichskommissariat Ostland. A Sicherheitspolizei  (Security Police) was established for internal security under the leadership of Ain Mere in  1942. Estonia was declared Judenfrei quite early by the German occupation  regime at the Wannsee Conference.[4] Jews  that had remained in Estonia (929 according to the most recent calculation[5]) were  killed.[6] Fewer than a  dozen Estonian Jews are known to have survived the war in Estonia.[5]

Hans Aumeier (August 20, 1906 – January 28, 1948) was a Nazi war criminal, an SS-Sturmbannführer (Major) and the deputy commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp. He was also responsible for the camps in Estonia.

=======
A few more Nazi names associated with the Holocaust:
Lucian Damianus Wysocki (* 18. Januar 1899 in Gentomie, Kreis Preußisch Stargard; † 13. Dezember 1964 in Rheinhausen

Wilhelm Christian von Grolman (* 16. Juli 1894 in Schweidnitz; † 20. Juni 1985 in München)

Walther Schröder, auch Walter Schröder (* 26. November 1902 in Lübeck; † 31. Oktober 1973 )

Walter C. A. Alnor (* 29. Oktober 1892 in Gaarden / Holstein; † 13. Dezember 1972 in Bad Segeberg) Reichskommissariat Ostland im lettischen Libau (Liepāja).

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reichskommissariat_Ostland
More names here. “To what extent Walter Alnor in the murder of the Jews in his district was involved, cannot be determined on the basis of existing sources.” source: Wiki.de, bio

Hugo Wittrock (* 19. Juli 1873 in Laugo auf Ösel in Estland; † 25. August 1958 in Lübeck

tvijas okupācija 1941-1945 wikipedia lv, source

Third, was arrested after the driver of the order of self-defense. Fourth, the arrested people who tried to settle personal hostility. 1941st July V. Štālekera appointed prefect of Riga, *Robert Stiglitz reported Latvian Security Police and SD chief *Krauzem only in July during the first nine days alone in Riga had been arrested or detained persons in 1192. *John Limbēns (1919), who 1941st July voluntarily joined Arāja team, check showed that the team 1941st In the summer every night arrests of 30-40 people.

Edgar Laipenieks [d. 1998], Tscherim Soobzokov und Vilis Hazners.
accused, but not found guilty.

http://forum.axishistory.com/v­iewtopic.php?t=9938&highlight=­viktors+arajs
More on Arais Commando

Lithuanian and Latvian auxiliary military units with German Einsatzgruppen detachments participated in the extermination of the Jewish population in their countries, as well as assisting the Nazis elsewhere, such as deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto. The Arajs Commando, a Latvian volunteer police unit, for example, killed 26,000 Latvian Jews and was responsible for assisting in the killing of 60,000 more Jews.

About 75% of Estonia’s Jewish community, aware of the fate that otherwise awaited them, managed to escape to the Soviet Union; virtually all the remainder (between 950 and 1000 people) were killed by Einsatzgruppe A and local collaborators before the end of 1941. (Source: Max Jakobson Commission Investigation of Crimes against Humanity)

http://www.martinfrost.ws/html­files/holocaust.html

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrar­y.org/jsource/Holocaust/batdia­ry.html
Men from the Baltic States were with Stroop when he burned down the Warsaw Ghetto.

Rudolf Pannier:survived the war. He died on the 19 August 1978 in Hamburg.[2]

1943 he was given commanded of SS Jäger Battalion 500,[2] a Waffen SS unit that specialized in antipartisans warfare and was stationed in the Minsk area. This unit was disbanded in June 1944, and all its men sent as replacements to others Waffen-SS units. In November 1944 Pannier was given command of the 31st Waffen-Grenadier Regiment der SS, 14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Galicia (1st Ukrainian).[2]

The 204th Schutzmannschafts Battalion was an SS guard unit composed from the ethnic Ukrainians personnel drafted at the Lemberg area of the Distrikt Galizien at January — February 1943. Members of the unit committed atrocities against Jews and Communist party members during early German occupation[1] The unit provided guards for concentration camp Pustków[2]. In July 1943 it was reinforced to 800 strength by the volunteers signed for the 14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Ukrainian). In late July 1944 battalion personnel was transferred into reserve regiment of the 14 SS Freiwilligen Division “Galizien”.[3]
Thousands died at this camp

Maksym Skorupsky (Maks) (Ukrainian: Максим Скорупський; also known by his pseudonym Maks) (November 12, 1912 — December 11, 1985) was a Ukrainian military leader of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. Associated with above-mentioned Galician SS.

http://www.amazon.com/Holocaust-Latvia-1941-1944-Missing-Center/1
Ezergailis, book on Holocaust in Latvia

http://www.amazon.com/Murder-Latvia-1941-1945-Jewish-Lives/dp/0810117290/ref=pd_rhf_shvl_1

another book on the same subject

http://www.independent.ie/breaking-news/world-news/latvians-celebrate-ss-soldiers-2100980.html

Latvia Legionnaires

Some Latvian Police who participated in the Holocaust later joined the fight against the Soviet Union.

forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?f=51&t=133151

Baltics, Holocaust

The Holocaust in latvia
The 15th division of the Waffen SS, to which the men of Einsatzkommandos were joined after all ghettos were annihilated”.

axishistory

Veterans of the Latvian Legion of the Waffen-SS now parade through Riga
—————————
http://www.mfa.gov.lv/en/latvia/history/legion/

They The Latvian gov’t is actively trying to downplay the role of the Arajs Commando in the formation of the Latvian Legionnaires, who were subject to the German Waffen SS and Wehrmacht.

This document, put out by Latvia, has only one sentence or two about the Holocaust (of the Jews).

‘The * document speaks to the emergence of pro-Fascist organisations, which supposedly emerged after World War I. It says that the “Aizsargi” (Home Guard) organisation appeared and helped the leader of the Latvian Farmers Union, Kārlis Ulmanis, to stage his coup on May 15, 1934. In the late 1930s, according to the authors of this document, the Home Guard, members of the Pērkoņkrusts (Cross of Thunder) organisation and other nationalists began to collaborate with Germany, which in June 1941 led them to be active participants in the destruction of the Latvian Jewish community. Later, claims the Foreign Ministry, Latvian police battalions became involved in the slaughter of civilians, as did Waffen-SS units of Latvians. ”

*They’re referring to a Russian document.

“There is absolutely no reason to claim that there were any direct links between the Latvian Legion, which was established only at the beginning of 1943, and the war crimes that were previously committed by military or paramilitary organisations. The propaganda that is being waged against Latvia seeks to establish links between self-defence units, police battalions and the Latvian Legion, but the bottom line is that these links are absolutely false. Latvian soldiers did not take part in any slaughter of civilians, they fought against the military of the Soviet Union and the Red Army which had only a few years earlier put an end to the country’s independence, had killed and deported countless civilians and was threatening to re-occupy Latvia. There has never been a court case in which a member of the Latvian Legion has been accused of war crimes that have been committed in the context of the Legion. ”

“The Latvian Legion was established approximately one year after the last mass murder of Jews in Latvia. At the very end of World War II, people who had committed war crimes joined the Nazi Party and the security services (Sicherheitsdienst) of the SS, but that does not mean that the entire Latvian Legion was a criminal organisation. No community can be judged on the basis of what individuals have done.”

This is a whitewash of the percentage of the Legionnaires who did participate in the Holocaust

http://www.amazon.com/Latvian Legion Arturs Silgailis/dp/0912138351
*Arturs Silgailis was in charge of staff!

Here again in a comment, it shows that the author of this book barely mentions the role of Latvians in the Holocaust

http://www.youtube.com/watch=3dn_gxwd1Z8&feature=related

German “liberators” of Latvia

The Latvian Auxiliary Police Battalions and the latvian Legion were involved, alongside the Nazis, in the Holocaust. The murder of Latvian Jews was basically completed by the end of 1941. The Schutzmannschaften Battalions were formed by the German authorities in late 1941 and 1942. There were two controversial Soviet trials against members of two of the battalions, which resulted in convictions. It is also known that two battalions were involved in guard duties at the Warsaw Ghetto.

However, the “Latvian SS Volunteer Legion”, as it was officially called despite the fact that most of the soldiers were conscripted, was founded by Hitler’s decree of 10 February 1943. It included some of the front-line police battalions and eventually some members of the Arājs Commando, but the Legion’s two divisions, manned basically by conscripts, were only involved in military combat actions.

source : Latvian gov’t

http://www.li.lv/index.php?option=content&task=view&id=141

The members of the Latvian divisions of the SS were not all part of the Holocaust. Many went on to assist the Allied policing of Nuremberg during the trial. But they cannot whitewash history.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2010/jan/08/holocaust-baltic-lithuania-latvia

The real meaning of the attempt to equate Nazi genocide with Soviet repression is clearest in the Baltic republics, where collaboration with SS death squads and direct participation in the mass murder of Jews was at its most extreme, and politicians are at pains to turn perpetrators into victims.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2009/sep/09/second-world-war-soviet-pact

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2010/apr/03/baltic-far-right-eu

article on the problems

===========
http://depts.washington.edu/baltic/papers/holocaust.html

Holocaust in the Baltics. Thousands of Jews were sent to Siberia by the Soviets, disproving many of the lies now spreading on the internet.

http://www.otto5.com/_glp/LatvianSSMen.htm

Analysis of Latvian SS. Before 1943, it was involved in the Holocaust. Afterward, it was formed into a military unit, and drafted men to fight the USSR. Hence the controversy on whether or not the marches should be banned.

ithaca.edu/icq/2006v4/depts/south_hill/sht2006_4latvia.htm
Ezergailis, Historian honored by Latvia

http://holocaustcontroversiesblogspot.com/2008/04/liepaja.html

“Liepaja LATVIA therefore gives us a further demonstration of the bankruptcy of Holocaust denial. To deny that the Nazis deliberately killed women and children from Liepaja, deniers have to ignore the existence of a handwritten diary by the SS and Police Chief, photographs taken by a perpetrator who was tried in a West German court, a census that the Nazis carried out two months after they invaded Latvia, and residential data collected by the Nazis in 1942, showing that many of the people in earlier censuses had been killed. Such denial can only be a deliberate blindness to evidence of genocide.”

**http://depts.washington.edu/baltic/papers/holocaust.html
=====

Estonia:

Ralf Gerrets hanged in Estonia.

Jaan Viik, hanged.

Wilhelm Werle (?) No info on axishistory. b. 1895. Presumed dead.

Janis Alfred Berzins, holocaust in latvia. Latvian

Paul Heyler, holocaust in estonia. German.

http://web.me.com/ezergail/A._Ezergailis_on_Holocaust/Weiss-Wendt_on_Estonia.html

 
Estonian units took an active part in at least one well-documented round-up and mass murder in Belarus. The 36th Police Battalion participated on August 7, 1942 in the gathering together and shooting of almost all the Jews still surviving in the town of Novogrudok

forum.axishistory.com/v­iewtopic.php?t=51105

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_ph.php?MediaId=522

Image of Klooga camp, Estonia. Strong image, careful viewing.

Estonian SS.

Estonian Auxiliary Police, murdered the Jews of Estonia along with Nazis. DId those Policemen later go on to join the Nazis in the fight against the Soviets?

Estonian SS and Nazi SS murdered **2,000 Jewish prisoners at Klooga-Vaivara. source

Estonian Report on Crimes against Humanity acknowledges that “287th Estonian Schuma (later incorporated into the 20th SS Division) battalion helped execute the 2,000 surviving KZ inmates at Klooga due to the Soviet advance ”

———
Julius Ennok

http://www.axishistory.com/ind;ex.php?id=1931

It clearly shows that a certain number of 20 th Grenadier Waffen SS were involved in death camps and Einsatzgruppen.

http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?f=51&t=133477

Estonian SS, involved in war crimes

Ervin Viks
===========
Lithuania:
Vilnius’s Museum of Genocide Victims barely mentions the 200,000 Lithuanian Jews murdered in the Holocaust and Estonian parliamentarians honour those who served the Third Reich as “fighters for independence”.

Margolis is especially loathed by proponents of the “double genocide” industry because she rediscovered, deciphered and published the long-lost diary of a Christian Pole, Kazimierz Sakowicz. Sakowicz, witness to tens of thousands of murders at the Ponar (Paneriai) site outside Vilnius recorded accurately that most of the killers were enthusiastic locals. Now resident in Rechovot, Israel, she is unable to return to her beloved hometown in Lithuania for fear of prosecutorial harassment.

But prosecuting those criminals for war crimes has been a disappointment, says Zuroff, because since its independence in 1991, Lithuania has failed to punish a single one of its own Holocaust war criminals.

http://www.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/europe/06/03/lithuania.nazi.prosecutions/index.html

Now, says Zuroff, Lithuania is trying to rewrite Holocaust history. “Nowhere in the world,” he says, “has a government gone to such lengths to obscure their role in the Holocaust. … Their mission is to change the history of the Holocaust to make themselves blameless.”

There is a report about Lithuanian Holocaust that explains it all very well. Yet they still foot dragged long enough until most perpetrators were dead. Clearly they have something to hide in Lithuania.

“The Nazis arrived after a year of occupation by the Soviet Union that was so brutal that many Lithuanians welcomed the Nazis when they arrived in June 1941.” The Holocaust happened in the wake of Nazi-Lithuanian-Soviet intrigue. The Nazis and Soviets both persecuted Jews, but the Nazis had the plan to destroy utterly the Jews of Lithuania.

The state-funded Museum of Genocide Victims in Lithuania
mandated to “collect, keep and present historic documents about forms of physical and spiritual genocide against the Lithuanian people”–omits over 200,000 Lithuanian Jews murdered by the Nazis with the help of local collaborators–apparently because Jews, then or now, aren’t real Lithuanians.
source: Simon Wiesenthal Center
——
The Nazis ordered the Holocaust, but they could not have completed it without ‘Helpers’ in the Baltic nations.

=====
new info:

Latvia
Voldemars Weiss d. 1944
wiki bio: On July 20 the Nazis disbanded this organization and ordered the formation of auxiliary police forces instead, with Lt. Col. Veiss being appointed Chief of the Auxiliary Police. At the end of 1941, he became First Deputy Director General of the Director General of the Interior when the Latvian Self-Administration was reorganized.

As early as autumn 1941 Latvian auxiliary police units, temporarily attached to the Wehrmacht, were first used in front line duties. This occasional employment continued until the 2nd Latvian Brigade was formed from six Latvian battalions, four of which had combat experience. At the end of April 1943 a three battalion formation fighting under name of Latvian Legion was withdrawn from the front line and renamed 1st Volunteer Regiment of the SS (Latvian), with a change of Wehrmacht ranks to those of Waffen-SS. Voldemārs Veiss was given command of this regiment, which was a part of the 2nd Latvian Brigade, and received a rank of Legion-Obersturmbannführer.

Martin Vagulāns
The Jelgava massacres were the killing of the Jewish population of the Jews of the city of Jelgava, Latvia that occurred in the second half of July or in early August 1941. The murders were carried out by German police units under the command of *Alfred Becu, with a significant contribution by Latvian auxiliary police organized by Mārtiņš Vagulāns. source: Jelgava massacres, wikipedia

Albert Sauer d. 1945

subsequently by the side in 17 February 1939 ordered to Mauthausen SS Sturmbannführer Franz Ziereis (executed) whom he replaced as commandant.[3]

In the period from 1941 to 1942, he had a service position in the Reich Commissioner for the Consolidation of German nationality.

From September 1942 to April 1943 was again Sauer protective custody camp in Sachsenhausen concentration camp.[4] Sauer was 1943 at the resolution of the Riga Ghetto involved. Later he was at times in camp commander KZ Riga-Slavkov Forest, the 1944 was vacated in July. This action was completed in September 1944. This resulted in Riga itself to larger massacres of prisoners and trapped.
=====
Otto Bräutigam (* 14. Mai 1895 in Wesel; † 30. April 1992 in Coesfeld)

Stahlecker; Prutzmann; Lange; all dead SD men (Gestapo).

Estonians:
Hjalmar-Johannes Mäe d 1978, quisling
Johanne Soodla, General d. 1965

Gustavs Celmiņš (April 1, 1899 – April 10, 1968)
was brought to America. He organized the Latvian Volunteers, which recruited the Latvian Aux. Police.

Major General Walter Schröder, the SS and Police Leader in Latvia;
(* November 26 1902 in Lübeck, † October 31 1973 ) was a German mechanical engineer, Nazi leaders (including as a member of the Reichstag and a member of the Lübeck citizenship), SS brigade leader and Police in Lübeck and as SS and Police Leader in Latvia; one of the most responsible for the murder of the Jews in the Reich Commissariat Ostland.

Kassner __?
Theodore Fründt, d 1984; escaped prosecution
http://www.gegenwind.info/128/reichskommissariat.html

Hugo Wittrock (* July 19 1873 in Laugo on Saaremaa in Estonia , † August 25 1958 in Lübeck)
Kube, Wilhelm (dead)
Zenner
Dr. Bush, couldn’t find anything
Litzmann, Karl Siegmund: d 1945

Hinrich Möller (*[see below] April 20th 1906 in Grevenkop ; † October 13th 1974 in Neumünster ), the final SS brigadier and major general of police, was since 1934 head of the SS regiment 50 Flensburg and police officials there to. In 1941 he was in Estonia one of the most responsible for the murder of the Jews in the Reich Commissariat Ostland .
3 years

Gewecke, Hans d. 1991
received 4 1/2 years in 1971

Almost all other area commissioners and even their subordinates were never indicted.

Hinrich Lohse died in 1964, but three of the four former Department Head of the Imperial Commissioner at that time lived again in Schleswig-Holstein, in addition to Theodor Fründt (d. 1984; no punishment); the farmer Martin Matthiessen (d. 1990), president of the Water and Shipping Directorate in Kiel ; retired *Johann Lorenzen in Kiel; former Councilor William [Wilhelm?] Burmeister (d, 1984 )

http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?f=45&t=144372), after Fründt the representative of the Reich Commissioner, now resided, 1968, in West Berlin. Also available as a potential suspect in Schleswig-Holstein: the active Secretary Heinz Wichmann [dead?], former personal assistant Lohse in Riga, and the former head of the department head of the Reich Commissioner, now director of government Dr. Karl Eger in Kiel [dead?].

Major General [Hinreich] Möller, the SS and Police Leader in Estonia; and Major General Lucian Wysocki, d. 1964 the SS and Police Leader in Lithuania.”
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucian Wysocki

one of Eichmann’s men:
Carl Albrecht Oberg (* January 27th 1897 in Hamburg, † June 3rd 1965 in Flensburg) was a German businessman, National Socialist and SS and police leaders in Paris with ranks Obergruppenfiihrer (1944) and General of Police (1944) and Weapons SS (1945).[1]
Not much punishment, deported Jews of France. 8 years.

Carl Vincent Krogmann (* March 3rd 1889 in Hamburg, † March 14 1978 ) was a shipowner, banker and industrialist from Hamburg during the period of National Socialism, First Mayor of the city.

http://www.jcpa.org/jl/vp530.htm

Dr. Adrian von Renteln,
In 1940, he was the “main office Head of Trade and Crafts in the national leadership of the Nazi Party,” a year later, Commissioner General in Lithuania, as such, he was on the part of civil administration in the mainly responsible for the murder of Lithuanian Jews during the German occupation.

1946 Renteln in the Soviet Union was executed. But according to another view (Dieckmann) may have succeeded to escape to South America.

Otto Teckmeier
Richard Nickel

Helmut Beck Broichsitter (1914-2000),[27], nothing on Wiki de

Lobe, Karlis
Latvian killer of Jews who went free

F­ritz Dietrich [Diedrich]
(Nazi_official) d. 1948. Involved in Latvian crimes; executed.

Maj. Gen. Emil Just –
Rumania

=====
I’m sorry for the google translations, but this proves that so many were never punished. [Hans Adolfss Pricmanis is Hans Adolf Prutzmann, de. And Victor Ploughman or Plowman, is Viktor Araijs]

Google translation of Latvian document on Genocide in Latvia, in comments section.
===
Estonian, not proved to have taken part in the Holocaust.
Alfons Rebane occurred after the study in the Estonian army, which he served until the occupation of Estonia in 1940 by the Red Army as an officer. After the invasion of the Wehrmacht in 1941, he joined and this was the 15th Ski Company of the Police Battalion 184 allocated. In the winter of 1941-42 because of the tense situation and police units were sent to the front. In June 1942 he was promoted to major and commander of the Volunteer Battalion 658th
=====

GRAPHIC! BE FOREWARNED:

‘Operation 1005’ in Riga
by Jens Hoffmann

Introduction

The subject of my lecture is what the American novelist Saul Bellow laconically described as the German’s “sudden sensitivity about evidence”.

After their arrival in Riga in April 1944 Helfsgott and his men were accommodated near the concentration camp Salaspils.
There, Jewish men who had been deported from Germany to Riga, were forced to build shacks for the first prisoners in January 1941st Approximately more than 25.000 people were kept there at the same time in a total of 45 shacks. During the first months Salaspils was managed solely as a death camp for Jewish men from Germany. Since May 1942 together with these thousands of “Reichsjuden” – Jews from the German Reich – several thousand Latvian political prisoners were kept in the camp. The number and composition of the imprisoned changed again in summer 1943, when the Germans brought Latvian families to Salaspils who were suspected of acts of resistance.

The guards of the camp locked children up to the age of five in a special shack, several hundred of these infants died during their custody.

The commanders of office Salaspils used the system of different classes of prisoners Which was typical for the German concentration camps as to additional instrument of their command. In shacks that 200 Latvian prisoners had to share usually 400 Jewish prisoners were crammed.

Besides the concentration camp, a camp for Soviet POWs was located in Salaspils. In the fall of 1941 the first soldiers were locked in old barracks there, later the Germans kept them in two open sites were fenced with barbwire. The estimated number of POWs in the end of fall 1941 is several tens of thousand, in June 1942 only 3.434 of them were still alive. (5)

The members of the Special Squad 1005 B used the localities of the camp guards from Salaspils for accommodation. The commander of the camp, that was officially designated as “work-correction-camp” (Arbeitserziehungslager), at that time was Kurt Krause who was subordinated to Rudolf Lange, the Commander of the Sipo-SD (KdS) in Riga, and with Lange Helfsgott discussed the details of >Operation 1005<. The two officials localized the mass graves in Riga and its vicinity and agreed that exclusively Jewish prisoners should be used for the work at the graves and the pyres. Lange would supply them from his camps and prisons. They also agreed that the prisoners should be killed, as they were witnesses to the destruction of evidence.

The Special Squad’s first working site was located in the forest of Rumbula, in front of the city station of the same name, beside the main street to Daugavpils. At least 23.000 Jewish men, women and children from the Ghetto of Riga had been shot in that forest within two days in November/December 1941 by German perpetrators and their Latvian helpers.

Unlike the executions of November some of the Jews who were forced into the forest in December succeeded to escape the German murderers. Together with Ella Madalje, Frida Michelson and the married couple Lutrins, Beila Hamburg survived who was just twenty-two years old at that time. (6)

About 2 and a 1 / 2 years after the mass murder in Rumbula the Special Squad began it’s work at the site that was overgrown by plants again. From the end of April to around the first days of June 1944 at least 30 Jewish prisoners who had been handed over by Langes command had to open several graves in the forest. Temporarily, Helfsgott used an excavator that was driven by Walter Fiedler, a member of the unit. The workers were forced to pull the corpses with metal hooks out of the pits and to arrange them alternately with layers of wood to huge bonfires that were poured with burning fluids like oil or gasoline before they were set on fire.

After the cremation and according to the usual procedures of >Operation 1005 in Bikernieki in the middle of September 1944. According to the conviction of the judges Walter Helfsgott stayed at the site during the executions but did not take part in the shootings:

“Certainly he [Helfsgott, JH] too considered the executions as unavoidable to keep the secrecy of the National Socialist atrocities and to preserve the German people from the enemies revenge. But it seems to be that he would have liked to avoid his personal involvement and presence during the executions and only took part in them because he thought to be bound on Dr. Langes orders and believed that a refusal would have deepest and perilous consequences. In any case Helfsgott endeavored to take part only on the side lines of the executions, for instance by dividing and supervising the cordons and things like that.” (12)

The involvement of the defendant “on the sidelines” of the executions that he considered as “unavoidable” was regarded by the judges as a sufficient reason for Walter Helfsgotts release.

Moreover the judges in the trail of son and others were not able to ascertain without any doubt that the Special Squad erased traces of mass crimes in the concentration camp Kaiserwald before it’s withdrawal from Latvia. But there are at least indications that members of the unit forced 40 to 60 prisoners of the camp to start the destruction of evidence at the mass graves near Slavkov Forest. (13) (13)

At the end of September 1944 Helfsgott and his men left Riga and were shipped to Gdansk. There were many prisoners of the Germans on the ship too, probably from Slavkov Forest. After the arrival in Gdansk, the majority of the female prisoners were brought to Stutthof concentration camp. The Germans pushed the male prisoners in “death-marches” (TodesmÄrsche) to different forced-labour- and concentration camps of the Reich.

On 13 October 1944, Riga was liberated by units of the Red Army. The soldiers met approximately 150 Jewish survivors. (14)

In fall 1944 the “Operation 1005 IltisOperation 1005<. From all the members of Special Squad 1005 B only Hans Sohns and Fritz Zietlow were sentenced for their actions in Federal Republic of Germany. In their remarkable judgment the judges wrote:

“One can not totally refuse to accept that the defendants conceived to act according to the interests of the people when they personally backed up the criminal plan of covering the traces through the extinction of mass graves and the killing of prisoners who were used for the work. In comparison to other racial motivated arbitrary actions which were committed during the National Socialist era this point of view does not allow to pronounce their civil degradation.” () (17)

For the present, Sohns and Zietlow were convicted to 4 respectively 2 years and 6 months penal servitude for aided and abetted murder in 280 respectively 30 cases. In August 1971 the punishment was changed to a sentence of life imprisonment.

http://www.buero-schwimmer.de/kuldiga/Hoffmann.html
Helfsgott and his men were accommodated near the concentration camp Salaspils.

more Nazis:
Kurt Krause [no info] may be “Krausem.”
Walter Fiedler
Walter Helfsgott, released.
Adolf von Schell (1893–1967)
SS-Sturmscharführer Fritz Kirstein
Wolf Schenke
————-
http://www.guardian.co.uk/worl­d/2011/apr/11/eichmann-sought-­trial-germany-1956?INTCMP=SRCH­

As Dr Efraim Zuroff, director of the Wiesenthal Centre’s Israel office, puts it:

Since they obtained independence in 1991, the Baltic countries’ record vis-a-vis the prosecution of local Nazi war criminals has been an abysmal failure. Not a single such person has ever been punished for their crimes.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisf­ree/2010/jan/08/holocaust-balt­ic-lithuania-latvia?INTCMP=ILC­NETTXT3487
http://www.chicagotribune.com/­topic/chi-081015-nazi-hunters,­0,3958619.story
They’re still looking for Nazis. Often the victims just want their stories told, since the remaining Nazis are over 80 years old and evidence can be hard to find. The reason evidence can be hard to find is because they killed so many innocent people.

http://www.nytimes.com/1988/03­/23/us/head-of-epa-bars-nazi-d­ata-in-study-on-gas.html?pagew­anted=3&src=pm

The chief of the Environmental Protection Agency, alerted by a letter of protest from agency scientists, has barred from an E.P.A. report on a toxic gas any data that the Nazis acquired in experiments on concentration camp prisoners.

“The walls of the ghetto were surrounded during the night by the special units of the bluep olice and German auxiliary units: Lithuanian, Latvian, and Ukrainian. The [Warsaw] Ghetto came under the authority of the SD [Gestapo]. ” Source: Warsaw Ghetto, a guide to the perished city

http://vip.latnet.lv/LPRA/angl­iski.htm
article on Latvia in English

http://vip.latnet.lv/LPRA/ezer­gailis.htm
Holocaust in Latvia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L­ist_of_denaturalized_former_ci­tizens_of_the_United_States

Incredible list! Is this the best we can do, “deport” Nazis? There are dozens more names on it!

http://www.nytimes.com/1998/08­/13/nyregion/suspect-in-nazi-w­ar-crimes-claims-ignorance-of-­killings.html?src=pm
Yesterday, Mr. Reimer maintained that by the time he arrived at the pit, all of the victims were dead. He said that they had been executed by a group of SS men who had arrived earlier. He said that he took only one shot, on orders from an SS officer, but directed his rifle away from the victims.

”I had to fire a shot,” he said. Speaking of the SS officer, he added, ”Otherwise — it is war time — he could have shot me on the spot.”

But then he acknowledged that one of the victims might have been alive.

http://holocaustinthebaltics.c­om/holocaust/lithuania/rehabil­itations

Corrected: Last comment does not mean that 500 of the marchers took part in the destruction of the Latvian Riga Ghetto, rather that 500 of the overall members of the Latvian Legion had done so.

http://www.lithuaniatribune.co­m/2011/03/15/jewish-community-­complains-over-neo-nazi-march/
More neo nazis

Daily Mail reports on Latvian Legion March. Included in the ranks of the young conscripts [to the Latvian Legion] were at least 500 men who had participated in the liquidation of the 40,000 Jews of the Riga ghetto.

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/new­s/worldnews/article-1258331/Na­zi-SS-veterans-march-Riga-even­t-organised-right-wing-party-l­inked-Tories.html#ixzz1GvmGTwf­3

http://www.seligman.org.il/kraslava_holocaust.html
Colonel Vytautas Reivytis and Lieutenant Bronius Norkus, who traversed the countryside slaughtering tens of thousands of Jews.

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10 Responses to “Holocaust in Baltics; Updated!”

  1. paolosilv Says:

    History Commission in its rear
    http://vip.latnet.lv/lpra/v_kom.htm

    On the follow-
    2001 28th November, the Latvian History Commission, summarizing three years of progress and outlining the challenges ahead, in its meeting discussed and approved the Commission’s interim report or progress report. After a number of drafting changes was submitted to the President and has just submitted for publication in “Latvian Journal. This document is recognized as acceptable and published in all 24 commission members – both Latvian historians and foreign researchers.

    Progress Report:
    Crimes against Humanity in Latvian territory of the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany during the occupation of the 1940th to 1956th The

    Preface

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the 1991st The Eastern European countries could begin to study German and Soviet occupation crimes against humanity perpetrated during the Second World War and after the war, doing it with an open mind and an open differential form. These crimes cost the lives of hundreds of thousands of citizens, are often all occupied countries for national elites. In the past ten years, local historians have tried to document and clarify these crimes in all Central and South Eastern Europe.

    This study course a major concern proved to be perceptive and cognitive differences between the Soviet and Nazi crimes out there in those countries and elsewhere, especially in the West. West, where the Nazis were enemies of the Second World War, caused by the Nazi Holocaust was and still is in the public interest and the focus of an extremely brutal crime against humanity. At the same time, the Soviet crimes against humanity – mass deportation, persecution, imprisonment, executions, death camps, the gulag and exile – in the West was not directly experienced, nor was widely known when they were held, and it encroaches the general consciousness. By contrast, Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union were either occupied, or that they were subject to 80. year end or 90. Operating on Soviet crimes, which in its way smagākajā was continued up to 50th years, dominated the public consciousness as something directly experienced, and has recently taken place. Therefore, both the Eastern and Western historians are obliged to use the newly acquired resources and the freedom of research to discover and explain the recent history in its entirety. Eastern European scientists to get down to the Nazis caused the Holocaust research in their home countries, including the issue of force or voluntary members of popular participation in the murder of Jews, as seen in the recent indictments of local people ownership in Poland and Romania. At the same time, Western historians should seek and consider the Soviet Union and other communist regimes in Eastern Europe crimes against humanity.

    As with all other countries in a similar situation, to Latvia to face with the perceptible difference. Latvia and the other two Baltic countries in a short period of five years was occupied three times – first was the Soviet Union 1940th year, the National Socialist Germany 1941st The Soviet Union and re-1944th-1945. year. Latvian forced into a Soviet republic and the Soviet Union illegal 1940th year led to massive deportations of the 1941st year, which affected the political, economic, social and cultural elite, and the other mass deportations 1949th year, which was directed against the peasants and the national resistance movement. The Soviet occupation was the reason many people emigrate to escape the second Soviet occupation 1944th-1945. year. German occupation of the 1941st In the summer, that after the terrible first Soviet occupation of early experiences led to hope for a kind of ‘normalization’, quickly introduced a somewhat different cruel oppression and exploitation policies. Almost all Latvian Jews were systematically murdered in the first six months of Nazi occupation.

    The sudden loss of hard won independence, which was followed by two terrorist regimes, Latvian residents confronted the difficult and complex ethical challenges ahead. These problems are exacerbated by the occupation authorities manipulation of public opinion and national sentiments, especially for the home and feelings of hatred. It must be remembered that the two occupying powers had conspired to take away the independence of Latvia (1939th of 23. In August Hitler-Stalin Pact) and the two can long-term goal was to complete the popular exposure.

    This problem and manipulation analysis and evaluation is a very difficult task of historians present. Event precise description and classification of difficult historical legend of resistance, many of whom are at least partly be attributed to the same occupants. Since the Nazi government representatives tried to justify their crimes by referring to the Soviet crimes last year, but while this same method was used in the Soviet regime, thus justifying its terrorist methods by the 1944th-1945. year. It was set up misperceptions and stereotypes that are still part of public opinion. German propaganda, for example, claimed that the majority of the Soviet security organs of the members who took part in the political persecution and deportation, were Jews. Is still in the Latvians, this statement is used to justify many a countryman of their participation in Jewish persecution and murder of the 1941st In the second half. While the Soviet authorities and representatives of several Western writers often claimed that almost all Latvians had participated in the Jews. This statement continues to reverberate. Therefore, it is necessary to fully identify the occupation’s aims and methods to sensitively and differentiated to assess both individual, social and ethnic groups and all nations suffering – political persecution, Holocaust, concentration camps, deportations and the gulag – and the long-term effects of the suffering of survivors and the nation.

    In order to facilitate these complex problems and making available the research results of both the Latvian and the international community, Latvian President Guntis Ulmanis 1998th On the 13th November established the International Commissions of Historians. It was modeled on similar commissions in other Central and Eastern Europe. The current President of Latvia Vaira Vike-Freiberga has continued his predecessor direction and has extended the mandate of the commission. The Commission is charged explicitly and clearly reveal the crimes against humanity during the occupation regime. The Commission has devoted its work to accomplish this task, through international conferences, promoting and publishing research work and develop appropriate curricula in schools and institutions of higher education.

    International conferences, mainly in collaboration with the Institute of Latvian History, establishing research directions and inform the public about the findings of historians. Up to now been three such conferences: “Latvia in World War II” (1999), “Latvian Holocaust research problems” (2000) and “1941st On the 14th June deportation “(2001). The first of two conference papers published in the series “Latvian Historians,”.

    The conference helped clarify the issues of Latvian research findings coincide or not coincide with the international scientific opinion, as well as to clarify the need for comparative studies. On several occasions at conferences arisen very controversial discussions, particularly on Latvian participation in the Nazi Holocaust to causing, and the term “genocide” use in describing the Soviet occupation policies, especially deportation. These discrepancies indicate that the Latvian historians is not enough to take care of the fact the identification, evaluation and presentation, but also on international research and development of internationally accepted terminology.

    International comparisons are also important to evaluate several aspects of Latvian history and the history of the world’s rank correlations. That aspect is the existence of an authoritarian regime since Latvian 1934th year, which contributed to the political structures of the Communist seizure of power 1940th year and an emphasis on national education and authoritarian impulses resulted in some Nazi propaganda from the 1941st year. That aspect of the Latvian Collaboration with both the Soviet and German side. These aspects, as such, is no exception and it is best understood in conjunction with developments in other central and south eastern European countries.

    The Commission devotes special attention to schools, dissemination of appropriate knowledge of history and teaching methodologies. To this end, the commission worked with the Latvian Education and Science, the Latvian History Teachers Association, the museum “Jews in Latvian, Latvian Museum of Occupation (1940-1991) and other educational and cultural organizations. “Controversial World War II issues teaching” was the teacher workshop 2000th in April. Later in the summer followed by a seminar on the Holocaust in the book “Tell it to their kids’ learning, 2001. November was a teacher seminar on Holocaust teaching methodology.

    To promote the development of research, the Commission formed four panels: 1. “Crimes against Humanity in Latvian territory during the 1940-1941 Soviet occupation, headed by prof. Dr. hist. Valdis Berzins, 2. “The Holocaust in Latvian territory 1941-1944, headed by prof. Dr. hist. Aivars Stranga 3. “Crimes against Humanity in Latvian territory under Nazi German occupation during 1941-1945, headed by prof. Dr. hist. Inesis Feldmann and 4. “Crimes against Humanity in Latvian territory during the second Soviet occupation in 1944-1956, headed by prof. Dr. hist. Heinrich Strods. More than 30 Latvian historians are currently engaged in major crimes during the occupation of exploration. Research aims to collect sufficiently complete and well-documented evidence that the stock in order to provide the most precise and undeniable picture of these crimes and their perpetrators.

    The Holocaust and especially ethnic Latvian participation of the massacres of the 1941st In the summer and late autumn is the most important central research object. The first findings indicate that there is no direct link between events in the first year of Soviet occupation (1940-1941) and Latvian Jewish groups in the killing. Participation motives lie elsewhere (Rudīte Vīksne). It is possible to identify the individuals who participated in the massacres of Jews in small towns (Amber Eagle), thus negating the cliché that the Latvians were generally involved in the violence.

    This is just such inhuman crimes trials start. Still need a lot of work to analyze the historical background, the repression mechanisms, as well as the entire occupation period (1940-1991) of economic, demographic, cultural and ethnic implications. A much more detailed reflection in a complex collaboration issues. Building a comprehensive killed and persecuted persons database. It all takes time, especially because many sources have only recently become available. Historians’ work is complicated by the fact that they have encountered difficulties in access to the Russian archives. At the same time, it is important to note that the research work has involved many of the new generation of historians. They gain not only experience but also opportunities for professional careers, thereby providing a new generation of Latvian historiography generation that will continue to work.

    Reports written by the four sub-leaders, providing information on the sub-goals, research status, issues and research achievements in 2001. summer.

    The first panel:
    Crimes against Humanity in Latvian territory before the Soviet occupation during 1940-1941

    Western society, which has never come into direct contact with boļševistiskā totalitarian crimes against humanity, they are still little known. For information on these crimes is often incorrect or even false. Information that once came from the Soviet Union was fully under control. Followed the Soviet propaganda and special role in providing information services. Emphasizing its involvement in World War II as the primary, even sole, antifascist forces, the Soviet Union denied its own crimes against humanity attributed to them and others as traitors or Nazi collaborators denigrated people of the crimes revealed. Although it is now possible to find the undeniable evidence of Soviet crimes against humanity, is still valid, as they seek to conceal or to Soviet involvement aizbildināt antinacistiskajā coalition. Latvian case, the Russian Federation that seeks to justify and excuse to flee from justice those accused of killing innocent civilians and the mass deportation of the exercise.

    Background

    Before World War II, Latvia, like the other two Baltic countries – Estonia and Lithuania – were independent and neutral country, a member of the League of Nations, which did not adversely affect any neighboring country. The court, after the 1934th May the parliamentary democracy after the coup, had been replaced Ulmana authoritarian regime. But it was much milder than Nazi Germany and Soviet Union boļševistiskās totalitarian regimes with their concentration camps and the Gulag. Ulmaņa regime followed the 1929th The prohibition of the death penalty, and Latvia, traditionally known for its spirit of tolerance towards minorities, and one of the few European countries welcomed the persecuted Jews in Nazi Germany. Reached that time a high standard of living and excellence in education and popular culture, it was very interested in the preservation of peace.

    1939th On 23rd August aggressive tone of Germany and the Soviet Union concluded a mutual non-aggression pact, which led to the German attack on Poland and the Second World War. For this and subsequent 28th contract signed in September added secret annexes behind the backs of crime in the Baltic nations were settled by their further fate. Although We are more than 60 years, and both Germany and the Russian Federation as the successor to the Soviet Union recognized this fact a secret deal that led to the multiplication of crimes against humanity in the Baltic States, neither of the two superpowers do not deem it necessary to apologize to Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

    Together with Nazi Germany seized and divided the territory of Poland, the Soviet Union began to act in secret annexes within the “sphere of influence”. As if taking care of their safety, the 1939th In late September and early October would force the Baltic countries ‘cooperation agreements’, which provided not introduce substantial contingents from the Red Army. Next June, when the attention was focused on the German invasion of France, the Soviet Union occupied Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, which failed in the face of overwhelming. In doing so, it ignored the international law and bilateral non-aggression pact.

    Latvian Soviet occupation in the first period of the 1940th On the 17th June 1941st On the seventh July experienced the brutal inhumanity of familiar with the sign “horrible year”. Latvia ceased to exist as an independent state within its territory, although the Latvian did not recognize the annexation of a large number of Western countries, including the United States and Britain. Latvian incorporation into the Soviet Union, organized the local Communists and other collaborators conditions of military occupation. Local communists, of up to 400, before the takeover of power was algojusi Kominterne, and their influence in society has been negligible. At the same time the independent state apparatus breaking dismissed and persecuted by statesmen, diplomats, officials, officers. Persecuted cultural and intellectual circles, who did not accept the Marxist-Leninist monoideoloģiju, and ruthlessly pursue all resistance test. Boļševistiskās pseidodemokrātijas behalf fundamentally transformed the structure of society, abolished freedom of the press and censorship imposed. Private property eliminated or severely restricted. Latvia was economically plundered.

    The Soviet occupation culminated in the 1941st in the spring. 14th June was a mass deportation of civilians from Latvian to Siberia. People unsuitable for transportation of goods wagons, the latest data, leaving 15,424 people, including minor children and infants, most of whom were killed in the road, many others – from hunger and cold in Siberia. In the German-Soviet war 1941st On 22nd June, chaotic Red Army retreated in Riga and its surroundings as well as other places, many civilians were brutally killed.

    A sub-objective

    First panel is to objectively and specifically as possible to clarify the Soviet crimes against humanity in Latvian at the 1940th On the 17th June to 1941st On the seventh July. These crimes against the independent Latvian citizens in the form of human detention, imprisonment, deportation to t. s. Gulag camps, banishment for life long Soviet areas and killing. It was held without trial or investigation, very often even without charge. Allegations raised by the Soviet laws, and they were retrospectively – the alleged crimes of their duties for the independent Latvian state. The indictment completely ignored the international conventions and law. Equally important is the issue of collaboration research, finding out local communists and t. s. Soviet involvement in the crackdown on activists in the occupied Latvian civilians. Consideration should also be, or exactly where and killings of local civilians participated in the Latvian territory 1941st the last of June and first week of July retreating Red Army.

    Previous Research

    Latvian Soviet crimes against humanity in the first period of occupation could begin to study until after the collapse of the Soviet Union and Latvian independence in 1991. year. Only lived in the West, historians, researchers, including white origin, was able to deal with these issues and to publish their opinions, although they were not available in the Soviet Union and occupied avoti.1 Latvian Latvian known research efforts in this regard was carried out prior to the establishment of the commission of historians, even before 1991 . year. It was published document collections on the Latvian occupation and the occupying powers Latvian policy of political trials of the 1940th until 1986. gadam.2 Issued also repressed conversation, 3 evidence of the victims, four publications on represijām5 u. c. However, the period studied, based primarily on the researchers’ own enthusiasm, without an overall plan and coordination, in many cases – without the hardware.

    The Panel’s work

    With the establishment of the commission began systematic work, identifying the specific research topic interesting for researchers, including – in the years of junior researchers. Research stimulated by government funding released.

    International conference “Latvia in World War II, the Commission organized the 1999th from 14 to 15. June, stimulated research on the Soviet regime, the repression of Latvian citizens, the mass and some smaller-scale deportations of people in detention, torture and killing.

    2,001th On 12th-13th For the connection with Article 14. deportations of June 60th anniversary was held in Riga panel organized an international conference, and came in part funded by a collection of documents with the 15,424 deportees data “shipped …”. 6 conference papers delivered deportation valuation compared to other people’s perspectives and experiences. The majority of participants, including representatives of all Latvian, 1941st On the 14th June deportation was evaluated as an expression of genocide under the United Nations 1948th On the ninth of the Convention (Convention on the Prevention and punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 9 December 1948) 2. A number of points, 7 rejecting the Russian Federation’s attempts to challenge it. Summary of the conference, however, were recorded to assess the need for further and argue that the genocide.

    Prepared and 2002. will be published in the conference proceedings, as researchers in scientific articles. Dr. hist. Irene Schneider article will be discussed in the Soviet regime with the assault on civilians in Latgale 1940th in late June and early July. Dr. hist. Eric Jēkabsons turned to repression of minorities, but with Ainars Bambālu – repression of Latvian army officers. Ainars Lerhis paper is about the fate of diplomats.

    Several articles about similar problems, including the collaboration of the Soviet occupation in the first period, determined to prepare other historians until 2001. on weekends. Granted by the commission for financial support. The results suggest that the Commission has significantly contributed to research on the Soviet crimes against humanity in Latvian.

    Follow-up

    Further research topics important to identify and assess the extent of repression in the occupied Soviet Latvian, causes and reasons for collaboration, collaborators social origin. Also important to consider a place in Latvia, namely, the Baltics, the Kremlin was given estimates of the time and in a broader perspective. Further analyze the Soviet regime’s economic and national policy and the increasing Russification, cultural sovietization u. c. problems.

    To carry out these tasks, the researchers will continue to need financial security. The whole problem is our historians approach the relevant archives of the Russian Federation. They also have major problems with the commission of first sub-organized research work.

    1 Although many of the early Western publications on the subject, especially during the Cold War, was a clear political purpose – the Soviet condemnation of crime and calls for release of the Baltic states – not the entire lack of documentary or scientific value. Among the most important: Thess Names Accuse: Nominal List of Latvians Deported to Soviet Russia in 1940-41. Stockholm: Latvian National Foundation, 1952, Report of the Select Committees to investigat Communist Aggression and the Forced Incorporation of the Baltic States into the USSR: Third Interim Report. Washington: U.S. Printing Office, 1954, p. 537. (Known as the Kersten Committee report); Adolf heated. Deported by the feet. [New York]: Book Fair, 1956, p. 304. (Heat got the information from interviews with Soviet prisoners of war in German captivity redundant). Interesting, but the publication date of often unacknowledged source is Alfred Ceichnera book – Latvian bolševizācija. Riga: A. Ceichnera Publishing House, 1944, republished 1986, p. 595. Especially should politicize the scientific approach to the 1969th was founded by Baltic Studies Association (Association for the Advancement of Baltic Studies – AABS) work. Scientific articles published in Journal of Baltic Studies and AABS issued books, recorded: Laurence Kitching. Baltic Studies Indexes 1970-1997. Hackettstown, NJ: AABS, 1998, p. 136. It should also Romuald. J. Misiunas and Rein Taagepera. The Baltic States: Years of Dependence 1940-1980. Berkeley: U of California P, 1983, p. 333.

    2 Latvian annexation and occupation: 1939-1940: Documents and Materials. Compiled. I. Grava-Kreituss, I. Feldmann, J. Goldmanis, A. Stranga. New York: Press House, 1995, p. 603.; Occupation policy Latvian, 1939-1991: Collection of Documents. Acc. red. E. Pelkaus. Riga: Latvian State Archives / Nordik, 1999, p. 590., Latvian political trials from 1940 to 1986: crimes against the Soviet state accused the Latvian population ratio. Red. R. Vīksne and K. Kangeris. Riga: Latvian Institute of History Publishing House, 1999, p. 975.

    3 repressed list 1941st Latvian Archives, 1-2. Annex. Riga: Latvian State Archives, 1995.

    4 Anda Lice, Compiled. and red. Via Dolorosa: Stalinist victims’ testimonies. 1st-2. gram. London: Flame, 1990, 1993. 604, p. 622., 3.-4. gram. New York: Press House, 1994, 1995. 312, p. 320.

    5 J. Minister. “‘Kulak’ Latvian (1940th-1953rd year): How varasvīri Latvian ‘kulaks’ delivered and of the consequences”. Documents and facts. New York: Ievanda, 1996., 129. p..; A. Bambals. “Stalinist genocide against the Latvian army soldiers Baigajā year, the Communist totalitarian and genocidal practices Latvian: Scientific Conference. New York: Science, 1992., 74th-86. p..

    6 Elmārs Pelkaus u. c., ed. Deported: 1941. On the 14th June. Riga: Latvian State Archives, 2001. P. 808.

    7 See. Convention for the second Article: “In this Convention genocide means any of the following actions with the intent to destroy in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group as such: a) killing belonging to the group, b) causing serious bodily belonging to the group or mental damage, c) deliberately pushing the group living conditions of the calculations in order to lead to a group of total or partial destruction, d) establish rules to prevent births within the group. ” Quoted by G? Nter Hoog and Angela Steinmetz, ed. International Conventions on Protection of Humanity and Environment. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1993, p. 32. p..

    ————————————————– ——————————

    Second panel:

    The Holocaust in Latvian territory during the Nazi occupation 1941-1945

    Total across the Jewish destruction – the Holocaust – Nazi-occupied Latvian was the greatest of crimes, who suffered Latvian 20th century. It is distinguished by indescribable sadism and a huge number of victims.

    Background and Summary

    The decision on the destruction of the Jews adopted the German occupation authorities. Occupied Latvian independence and there was no Latvian authorities, which could in any way affect the decision of the occupiers. Latvian society was seriously affected by the first Soviet occupation period (1940th of June 17 – 1941. End of June), the brutal terror, it welcomed the German occupation physically and morally weakened.

    Holocaust victims are the largest group of people responsible for the killing of occupation regimes in the 1940th of June, when Latvian independence was destroyed, and the 1945th by May, when the war ended. Were killed over 70 000 Latvian Jews and more than 20 000 Jews from other occupied European countries (Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania) and Germany’s own, which were imported from the occupied Latvian 1941st until 1944. year.

    Jews under total destruction and killing of non-Latvian Jews occupied the Latvian territory continued until the defeat of Nazi Germany 1945th May. Shortly before the Red Army entered Riga 1944th On the 13th For the Nazi authorities transferred some 1,500 Jews from concentration camps “Lenta” and other camps to Liepaja. From Liepaja to 1945th March most of the prisoners were transferred to Hamburg in Germany. Liepaja up capitulation of Germany remained a small part of a “ribbon” to bring back the prisoners. Forests of Kurzeme hid about 50 of Dundagas escaped the concentration camp Jews, half of whom were captured and murdered. For other Jews, prisoners of Liepaja and wandering through the forests, the Holocaust did not end until the 1945th On the ninth May. Also, for those Jews who at the time of the 1944th year 6. August to the end of September were removed from the camp “Kaiserwald-Riga” on Štuthofas concentration camp in Germany, the Holocaust did not end until after the German capitulation.

    Latvian Holocaust is characterized by the destruction of the Jews had two phases. In the first phase – the German occupation at the start of the 1941st In July and August – the destruction of Jews always have been directly and centrally managed. German occupation of the security police forces (SD) carried out mainly through the overall supervision of and inspired by Latvian collaborators of the Jewish destruction. Killing Jews, especially in provincial towns and Latvian urban areas, a major role in the local collaborators. In the second stage – from the 1941st autumn until the 1945th May – Jewish destruction was under Nazi German occupation authorities fully centralized, planned and systematic policies.

    At Holocaust research specialties include the fact that the killing of Jews in the progress of Latvian Province 1941st In the summer of the main sources of research during the Soviet occupation by the State Security Committee (KGB) investigations and trials of Soviet documents, Nazi Einzsatzgruppe-A (Security Task Force and SD) daily reports (Ereignismeldunen UdSSR) and semi-annual performance reports, which obliges researchers to be especially careful and critical evaluation of the reliability of sources. Another important source, but with less importance, is the Nazi occupation, the Latvian provincial press.

    A sub-objective

    Holocaust research and education Latvian has two very important tasks.

    1st Inform and educate the Latvian people, especially youth, about the Jewish tragedy and keep alive the memory of innocent victims.

    2nd Inform the international community about the Holocaust in Latvian territory and to correct erroneous information and false stereotypes about it. Let’s mention just the most common mistakes: a) a stereotype that a free Latvian ago 1940th June was dominated by very deep-seated anti-Semitism, which directly affected the destruction of the Jews (the U.S. professor Daniel Goldhāgens book, which became a best seller, writes that the Latvian culture in general has described radical antisemītisms1), b) is very often ignored the fact that the independent Latvian the dissolution of the 1940th On the 17th For the Soviet military aggression of, and creates the impression that the Holocaust happened in the Latvian Latvian news capacitated institutions, c) the assumption that the German-occupied Latvian local people participated massively in the Holocaust (that view is clearly expressed in the Holocaust Raul Hilberga classic works, including his last monogrāfiju2).

    Previous Research

    During the Soviet occupation, since the 1944th-1945. year, the Holocaust was not investigated. Opposition to the Jewish total destruction research has further increased the 60th and 70. years, when the Soviet Union actively moved the “fight against Zionism” and supported anti-Semitic UN resolution that equated Zionism to racism. Latvian Holocaust history has been studied outside the Soviet Union, already starting with Article 40. second half of the year. Of the Holocaust in Latvian has issued more than 25 books abroad: U.S., Israel, Germany, England and other countries. It is mainly memoirs literature. Scientific research is published by Gertrude Schneider (Gertrud Schneider) United States, Dovs Levin (Dov Levin) in Israel, Hans-HeinrihsVilhelms (Hans-Heinrich Wilhelm) and Helmut Krausniks (Helmut Krausnick) in Germany, Margers Vestermanis Latvian. A major study by the lasting importance of historiography is Wilhelm and Krausnika work on the SD special forces – Einzsatzgruppen – the role of Jewish extermination Latvijā.3 most significant work devoted to the Holocaust in Latvian, is Andrievs Ezergailis extensive monograph “The Holocaust in German-occupied Latvian ‘.4 It is the first work which provides an overview of the entire Latvian Holocaust. Especially significant is the Latvian edition, which together with the Latvian Latvian Institute of History, University Research Fellow Rudite Viksne includes carefully developed chapter on the destruction of the Jewish Latvian province – Ikšķiles district. Ezergailis important contribution to the Latvian units – particularly the so-called Arāja Team – a detailed study and its role in the Holocaust reflection. Numerous studies have clearly demonstrated a key role in the Nazi criminals in destroying the Jewish Latvian: they were German occupation of security service leaders Štālekers Walter (Walter Stahlecker), Hans Adolf Pricmanis (Hans Adolf Pr? Tzmann) Jeckeln Friedrich (Friedrich Jeckeln), Heinz belt (Heinz Jost ), Rudolf Lange (Rudolf Lange), and Latvian criminals Victor Ploughman, Voldemars Weiss, Robert Stiglitz, Martin Vagulāns. More still desirable to study Weiss, Robert Ash, Carl Lobe u. c. role in the destruction of the Jewish Holocaust in the first stage of the 1941st in the summer. At the same time it should be noted that until the establishment of the commission was very poorly studied in the destruction of Latvian Jews in the province.

    Long before the establishment of the commission, thanks Margeris Vestermanis long service, was created in the Documentation Centre and Museum “Jews in Latvian, who has made substantial research and educational work. The museum was collected, the most comprehensive human memory of the Holocaust survivors in the compilation of the museum staff were the first to analyze the Soviet KGB archives of the Jewish murderers. Vestermanis, already starting with the 1989th years of regular publication of the German academic publications, part of a museum exhibition has been exhibited in Germany.

    The Panel’s work

    Establishment enabled the launch complex, extensive, state-sponsored Holocaust Latvian research, involving a number of foreign specialists. Commission activities organized during the two international conferences: 2000. from 1-2. April Ligatne, which included presentations on teaching the Holocaust in Latvian history course in high schools, and 2000. from 16 to 17. October in Riga on Holocaust research problems. Riga conference papers have been published in the scientific collection, part of the studies published in English, which makes them available to readers throughout the conference in Riga pasaulē.5 Commission of Historians Margers Vestermanis read an analytical paper on the Holocaust in Latvian historiography of the importation of scientific course work up to now overdue and idiša in Hebrew.

    Fully completed and published the following studies: 1) Amber Eagle. “Some episodes of the Holocaust Krustpils: Beila Bella manner”. This study represents the latest research trends in the history of Latvian Holocaust – the destruction of Jewish towns course of research, 2) Aivars Stranga. “Jewish refugees in Latvian. 1933-1940 ‘, 3) Rudīte Vīksne. “Arāja team member on the Boards of the trial materials: social status, education, joining motifs, was sentenced”, 4) Margers Vestermanis. “Review of the rescuers of Jews in Latvian”. Vestermanis has determined that it was a disguised 450 Jews, 400 of hidden were rescued and survived. Fully finished Leo Dribins monographic studies “Anti-Semitism History of Latvian”, which will be published 2002nd at the beginning.

    Commission’s activities has improved over the Holocaust Latvian secondary schools. The Commission has successful cooperation with the Latvian History Teachers Association. Has started in Latvian and Israeli teachers’ exchange visits.

    Museum “Jews in Latvian” has received a new, much wider area and prepared a new, complement and extend ekspozīcij of Holocaust history in Latvian. The museum staff has produced three video films – trilogy “Rescuers and the rescued.

    The theme of the Holocaust have turned to local history museums and novadpētnieki. Special mention should be Bauska Museum and Museum of History Department Aigars Urtans work done. Local History service began Valdemarpils (Eric Prokopovičs), Saldus District (Aldis Belson) and Pavilosta. Novadpētnieciskus materials for the destruction of Jewish towns in Latgale has begun to collect Meijers Meller.

    Since the beginning of the Commission’s work is a positive change in public position against the Holocaust. Currently, the Holocaust research at all in Latvian history in academic research centers: Latvian Institute of History, University of Latvian History and Philosophy and Judaic Center (project: “The Latvian Jewish oral history”), the Latvian Occupation Museum, the Museum of Jews in Latvian “, Daugavpils Pedagogical University ( Dmitry Oļehnovičs). The most significant achievement is the latest generation of researchers in (Svetlana Bogojavļenskaja, Amber Eagle, Dmitry Oļehnovičs, Aigars Urtāns, etc.).

    Future Plans

    1st Rudīte Vīksne continue to work on the topic “The Holocaust Latvian small towns and rural areas”. Destruction of Jewish history in Latvian towns will continue to explore and collect materials for Meyer, Meller, Aigars Urtāns and Dr. Grigory Smirins.

    2nd Margers Vestermanis continue to work on three topics: a) the Latvian population countering Holocaust “b)” The Jewish resistance to the Holocaust ‘, c) “concentration camps” Kaiserwald “and” Jungfernhof “history”.

    3rd Will start work on the project at the Latvian Latvian Jews killed in the name to identify and compile the list. U.S. Professor Edward Anders (Edward Anders) and Latvian Juris Dubrovskis researcher has conducted a study on Liepāju.6 project for the Latvian killed in the name of the identification has been developed Latvian University Center for Judaic Professor Ruvin Ferber chair.

    4th Continue cooperation with the Latvian History Teachers’ Associations, to prepare by teaching kit entitled “The Holocaust” (Author: Eve Gundare, Scientific Advisor: M. Vestermanis) and prepare the audio cassette “Latvian ghetto and concentration camp songs and poetry” as a tool for teaching the Holocaust in schools (the authors : Ambassador Vestermanis and Vladens Šūlmans).

    5th Further research topics: a) a reaction against the Latvian population of Latvian Jews decimated the Nazi occupation conditions, b) observed in the Latvian press position of the Jews, especially in articles condemning the “Jewish žēlotājus”, c) a detailed study of the Latvian Christian denominations (Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Orthodox and Baptist) stand against the destruction of the Jews.

    1 Daniel Johan Goldhagen. Hitler’s Willing Executioner. London: Abacus, 1996, 409th p..

    Raul Hilberg 2. T?? Ter, Opfer, Zuschauer. Frankfurt: a.M., 1992, 313th-316th p..

    3 Helmut Krausnick und Hans-Heinrich Wilhelm. Die Truppe des Weltanschauungskrieges. Stuttgart, 1981, p. 688.

    4 Andrew Ezergailis. The Holocaust in occupied Latvian. London: Institute of History Publishing House, 1999, p. 591. English: Andrew Ezergailis. The Holocaust in Latvia. London: Institute of History Publishing House, 1996, p. 465.

    5 Caune Andris, Aivars Stranga and Margers Vestermanis, ed. Holocaust research problems in Latvian / The Issues of the Holocaust Research in Latvia. Latvian Historians, 2nd Riga: Latvian Institute of History Publishing House, 2001, p. 408.

    6 Edward Anders and Juris Dubrovskis. Jews in Liepāja 1941-1945: A Memorial Book. Burlingame, CA: Anders Press, 2001, p. 199.

    ————————————————– ——————————

    Third panel:

    Crimes against Humanity in Latvian territory Nazi occupation, 1941-1945

    The so-called German period is a complex and contradictory time in Latvian history, the key to understanding this event is the objective evaluation of the context and balanced perception of the past.

    Background and Summary

    Nazi occupation replaced thousands of Latvian very tragic and wrenching experience of Soviet occupation. Germans were associated with expectations for restoration of Latvian independence, which proved to be unjustified. Nazi plans did not include the sovereign Latvia. They provide exposure to Latvian and ģermanizēšanu. Latvia became a part of East Reichskommissariat (Generalbezirk). The so-called Local Self-Administration, which was established in the 1942nd in March, was very limited executive power. German sovereign power exercised Latvian Generalbezirk reihskomisāram General for the subordinate.

    The Nazi occupation regime Latvian ignored international law. It was fully responsible for massive crimes against civilians, which was amended in Latvian territory. Nazi terror was pronounced political and racist in nature. Besides the Jewish Holocaust of the Roma and the mentally ill destruction. German repressions turned Communists and Soviet activists, and national resistance groups. Local residents were involved in the German occupiers set up repressive system mobilized for military duty and sent to Germany in the service. Nazi economic policy was directed to the Latvian full looting.

    Previous Research

    German occupation authorities in a criminal policy Latvian describes the many historical treatises. Up to 90th years, this issue could be seriously researched only in the West. Latvian literature throughout the history of Nazi occupation policies were largely politicized and ideological. It expressed its views on the Soviet occupation of German occupation period in Latvian, and as such was fragmentary, incomplete and one-sided.

    With the Latvian and Latvian exile historians effortlessly 90th years Significant advances were made during the German occupation in research. Prepared and published several collections of documents, thus expanding the sources for research. Written and published some important monographic work (Harald often. “Latvia swastika under the rule of” 6, Heinrich Strods. “Under melnbrūnā sword” 7, Andrew Ezergailis. “Holocaust in German-occupied Latvian” 8, etc.), analyzing the policies of Nazi occupation characteristic manifestations of Latvian . Various periodicals put dozens of articles, which are among the Charles Kangeris studies, which is distinguished by its highly professional approach and are well justified avotos.9

    Latvian historians continue to step up to Nazi policy, with particular attention to crimes against humanity. An encompassing scholarly overview of the German occupation period in Latvian.

    Current and Future

    Latvian Commission has succeeded in intensified research efforts. The Panel’s charge is now underway in several directions.

    1st Victims of Nazi persecution clarification. Historical literature are the figures are often exaggerated and untrustworthy. Historians Uldis Neiburgs Journeyman and Kevin have now begun to identify during the Nazi occupation of those killed and repressed, and create an appropriate database for the following parameters: name, first name, date of birth, place of residence, occupation, charge, place, the end result, and so on. Student database that will give scholars with empirical evidence and reveal the most visible of the repressed group.

    2nd New research on the Nazi repressive system in Latvian. Need to pay attention to the German occupation authorities prisons and concentration camps in the body, as well as their mechanisms of action. Seriously explore the formation of the police apparatus, with emphasis on the Latvian police battalions in the formation and function. Still historical literature, which reviews this topic, do not provide sufficiently convincing and substantiated answers to important questions: why the Latvian police battalions were formed, what was the role of the occupying powers to the repressive system of differences and forming the Latvian police battalions, Lithuania, Estonia and Ukraine. By examining these issues by Karlis Kangeris and others.

    3rd Studies on Latvian citizens cooperating with the Nazi occupiers. One of the problem are currently being explored Edwin Evarts. It must analyze specific situations Latvian Nazi occupation in two different each other in rapid succession on the occupation, the population in what was then an understanding of loyalty (the most – loyalty to de facto destroyed the Latvian state), their position against the Nazi occupiers and mass psychology at the time. It should also be on the collaboration features of Latvian – to a large extent in the first Soviet occupation and efforts to recover the Latvian independence.

    4th Historiographic job training (Inesis Feldmann, Zunda, Jānis Taurens), which sought to clarify what issues still need. The past two years considerable attention. Historiographical exploratory studies make it possible to examine the nuanced views of foreign authors to the “German period” in Latvian.

    Research problems

    1st Very important research problem is the transfer of authority in conduct of Latvian territory 1941st in the summer. Historians commissioned to have begun to address Juris Pavlovich. Research process not only necessary to specify on what dates they began the German occupation of Latvian towns and parishes, but also must look at how developed early in the occupation of the German command structure and the Germans in his command included a range of t. s. self-defense groups. It is unclear, for example, is a question which German institutions controlled “self-defense” units.

    2nd In this context, it is necessary to solve t. s. interregnum problem t. i. whether and to what extent in Latvian after the Soviets left 1941st in late June and early July there was or there was no power vacuum. In historical literature, two diametrically opposed views. Interregnum thesis is the relatively untested and questionable view that the “real German occupation, at least initially, was not at all, and Latvians acted (days, weeks, even months) without German control and orders.” It is also asserted that “self defense” without the presence of German and to my Jewish people. ” The other side is represented by historians who argue that the Germans were in full control of the situation the first time around and that there was no protracted period of interregnum.

    3rd It is also important to clarify precisely the Latvian World War II was involved in the German armed forces. The figures from 80 000 to 160 000. Recent studies (Karl Kangeris) that could speak of some 100 000 Latvian, of which nearly 70% were Latvian SS Volunteer Legion. Despite the title “volunteer”, a major recruiting tool German army was forced mobilization. Real volunteers may not exceed 15%. Reliable data are difficult because of lacking documentation.

    4th It is important to prevent the Soviet disinformation about the Latvian participation in German military units. German unit of Latvian soldiers served in the number and type of recruitment is one way to prove that there was no direct relationship between the Latvian Legion and former military or paramilitary units of the crimes committed. Soviet The connection of self-defense – police battalions – Legion grounds guilt (guilt by association) and not based on facts. Latvian soldiers were not involved in repressive activities. No legionary in any court has been accused of war crimes, which would be the Legion. The Legion was formed after the last mass murders of Latvian Jews. If at the end of the war Latvian Legion of the former Latvian SD units under the control inflow of those who had carried out war crimes, it does not make the Legion a criminal. “Nuremberg War Tribunal made it clear a group, part of the criminal organizations SS as a whole, as an exception to the forcibly mobilized, who had not committed war crimes.” (Karl Kangeris)

    5th Establishment of the Latvian Legion during World War II to be seen and assessed all Nazi-occupied and governed countries military formations and the context. This view shows that the Latvian Legion was no exception, and makes it possible to highlight the specific situation in Latvian. Latvian legionnaires fought only against the Soviet armed forces – the national army, which had occupied Latvian independence, carried out repression against the civilian population and was threatening to occupy it again.

    Research difficulties

    To make significant progress in researching the policies of the Nazi occupation, it is necessary to ascertain and through large amounts of material that can be found in various national archives documents.

    1 Harald thick. Latvia swastika power: strangers gentlemen – the same folks. [Lansing, MI]: Gauja, 1992, p. 535.

    2 Heinrich Strods. Under melnbrūnā sword: German Latvian policy. Riga, 1994.

    3 Andrew Ezergailis. The Holocaust in occupied Latvian. Riga: Latvian Institute of History Publishing House, 1999, p. 591. English: Andrew Ezergailis. The Holocaust in Latvia. Riga: Latvian Institute of History Publishing House, 1996., P. 465.

    4 Karl Kangeris. “Die baltischen Vlker und die deutschen Pl?? No für die R?? Umung des Baltikums”. Baltisches Jahrbuch (1988), 177 196th p.. Karl Kangeris. “Kollaboration vor der Kollaboration?” Okkupation and Kollaboration (1938-1945). Berlin: Huthig, 1994, 165th-190th p..
    back to the Crimes against Humanity

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