Hitler, Himmler and the Holocaust; Dr. Goebbels; bormann; wannsee conference; waffen ss

When did Adolf Hitler order the Holocaust?

Warning: Hitler’s quotations are included. Some may find them disturbing, but they are necessary to prove that he ordered the Holocaust, and had knowledge of its progress. Needless to say, they are Hitlerite propaganda, and the truth -value of their allegations served as German psychological warfare, ie, “The Big Lie” about the Jews.

“Furthermore, during his trial, SS-Obersturmbannführer Karl Adolf Eichmann, head of the department for Jewish Affairs in the Gestapo from 1941 to 1945, submitted that Reinhard Heydrich, head of the Reich Central Security Office, or RSHA (Reichssicherheitshauptamt) in charge of “carrying out the desired final solution of the Jewish question”9 informed him two or three months prior to Operation Barbarossa (22 June 1941) that Hitler had ordered the physical annihilation of the Jews.”1
http://www.holocaust-history.org/operation-reinhard/final-destination-treblinka

Christian Gerlach, historian, on notes found on Hitler’s Speech to the Gauleiters. Goebbels’ notes in his diary are matched by Hans Franck’s notes in his gov’t diary, proving that Hitler ordered the Holocaust, and openly spoke of it on that day.

Hitler speech, Dec 12 1941, to the Gauleiters, p212, “The Holocaust on Trial”, Guttenplan. Hitler makes clear his intentions are extermination.

“Himmler, Hitler and the end of the war”. Video by BBC. Last half of part one, shows very clearly how Himmler sent Hitler news of the Holocaust , renamed “transportation to the East.” Prof. Ian Kershaw.

*Goering letter to Heydrich, authorizing Final Solution, 1/24/39, long before the attack on Poland. “Assigned to you by the decree…”

Whose decree? Only Hitler could decree anything.

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When did Hitler order the Final Solution (the destruction of Jews)?

Some say as early as Jan 1939 (speech). Others, 16-20 April 1941. Others, 12 Dec 1941.

Browning, The Origins of the Final Solution, 370. For this quotation Browning cites Werner Jochmann (ed), Monologe in Führerhauptquartier (Hamburg 1980), 96–99. These stenographic records of Hitler’s mealtime monologs at his headquarters were published in English translation as “Hitler’s Table Talk 1941–1944″ (Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1953). Although the accuracy of the translation has been criticised, the gist of the statements by Hitler has been known since the English publication.
*Some have claimed “Hitler’s Table Talk” has not been proved to be accurate.

http://www.holocaust-history.org/december-12-1941/

The German historian Christian Gerlach has claimed that Hitler made his approval of a policy of extermination clear in a speech to senior officials in Berlin on 12 December (1941) (Christian Gerlach, “The Wannsee Conference, the Fate of German Jews, and Hitler’s Decision in Principle to Exterminate All European Jews”, Journal of Modern History, December 1998, 759–812). This is not universally accepted, but it seems likely that a decision was made at around this time. On December 18, Himmler met with Hitler and noted in his appointment book “Jewish question – to be exterminated as partisans”. (Browning, The Origins of the Final Solution, 410). On 19 December, Wilhelm Stuckert, State Secretary at the Interior Ministry, told one of his officials: “The proceedings against the evacuated Jews are based on a decision from the highest authority. You must come to terms with it.” (Browning, The Origins of the Final Solution, 405). In addition, this is when Goebbels noted in his diary that there would be a ‘clean sweep’ (13 Dec 1941).

http://www.holocaust-history.org/december-12-1941/

Although the Final Solution was already in place and Jews were being exterminated, the formal declaration of the (Madagascar) Plan’s end was abandoned on February 10, 1942, when the German Foreign Office was given an official explanation that due to the war with the Soviet Union Jews are going to be “sent to the east”.
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W­annsee_conference

“Kershaw makes a convincing case that there was no masterplan from the start of the war to exterminate the Jews”. Ian Kershaw , Hitler.

Again, this is highly unlikely. The persecution of Poland ‘s Jews began immediately after the invasion of Poland, 1 Sept. 1939.

Mayer’s “Why did the Heavens not darken” also has an arguable thesis. Mayer “claims that the Nazi genocide of six million Jews was not inevitable, and that the Jews became scapegoats marked for annihilation only after Hitler’s crusade against the Soviet Union ran aground.” His controversial, massive reassessment of Nazism “is sometimes challenging, but he overstates his arguments and uses evidence selectively” according to one Amazon reviewer.

Here are the examples I found which disprove these arguments:

On September 12, 1939, deliberations took place in Hitler’s train, in Poland, among the chiefs of the Wehrmacht. Ribbentrop (91) attended them with the military men. The question of the extermination of diverse categories of the population in Poland was brought up in the sense that Hitler wanted. Lahousen, present at these conversations, testified before the Nuremberg Tribunal that the general directive was to exterminate in Poland “the intellectuals, the nobility, the clergy and, naturally, the Jews.” This vague glimpse of Hitler’s conceptions at that moment was to be sufficient for Himmler and Heydrich to isolate the most evident point which could be begun in its totality, that is, the treatment of the Jews. Heydrich prepared a long term plan of action which he communicated on September 22, 1939 (PS-3363), to the chiefs of his mobile killing units in Polish territory”. (http://www.holocaust-history.org/klarsf … T045.shtml )

Himmler had authority Oct 1939 to do whatever it took to fulfill Hitler’s wishes.

September 1-October 25 1939

Operation Tannenberg, carried out by SS Einsatzgruppen (mobile kill squads), leads to the murders of Polish Jews and Catholic intellectuals and to the burnings of synagogues in Poland.
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earlier:
30th January 1939, when Hitler assured us that “in case of a war, not the Germans, but the Jews would be annihilated”. (source: Speer, see below also)*

On January 30, 1939, he said:

Today I want to be a prophet once more: If international finance Jewry inside and outside of Europe should succeed once more in plunging nations into another world war, the consequence will not be the Bolshevization of the earth and thereby the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe.

October 1939: Hitler orders that selected physicians be authorized to administer “mercy deaths”–euthanasia–to incurably ill or undesirable German citizens. No legal justification for the killings is necessary.

October 6, 1939: In an address to the Reichstag, Hitler offers peace to England and France, but only if Germany’s former colonies are returned, Germany is allowed to join world trade, and Britain and France allow Germany to solve the “Jewish problem.”

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November-December 1939

General Johannes Blaskowitz, the commander-in-chief of Greater Germany’s Eastern sector, complains to the German High Command that the activities of Einsatzgruppen (killing squads) are excessively brutal and a threat to army discipline. His complaints are noted but are largely ignored; Einsatzgruppen activities continue as before.

May 1940: Rudolf Höss, adjutant at the Sachsenhausen, Germany, concentration camp, is ordered to turn the former Polish army barracks at Auschwitz, Poland, into an concentration camp. ***

March 26, 1941: The German High Army Command gives approval to RSHA and Reinhard Heydrich on the tasks of the Einsatzgruppen in the Soviet Union. This implicates the German Army in the Holocaust!

There is little reason to doubt Eichmann’s judgment that the Nazi annihilation of European Jewry depended on Hitler’s orders. As Hilberg says, “Hitler was the supreme architect of the Jewish catastrophe.” The Final Solution was simply too important and vast to be implemented without his initiative. Precisely when Hitler expressed his decision, however, remains less certain. He probably gave his orders some time in the spring/summer of 1941, for the invasion of the Soviet Union and the Einsatzgruppen killings that had begun in June. By the autumn of that year, plans for massive Jewish deportations and death camps in Poland were under way.

source: holocaust chronicle

On May 25, 1940 for example, Himmler handed Adolf Hitler a secret memorandum that contained Himmler’s recommendations regarding “the treatment of the peoples of alien races in the East.” It called for “the racial sifting” of millions of people.
source: Holocaust chronicle

Two other features of Himmler’s memorandum to Hitler on May 25 are especially noteworthy. Without elaboration, Himmler referred to the possibility that Jewish ways would be “completely extinguished” in the East through “a large emigration of all Jews to Africa or some other colony.” In addition, when speaking about racially acceptable children who should be separated from their parents for purposes of assimilation, Himmler stated that “cruel and tragic” though these steps might be in individual cases, they were still the “mildest and best…if, out of inner conviction, one rejects as un-German and impossible the Bolshevist method of physical extermination of a people.” In Nazi Germany, such inner conviction did not run deep. When Himmler’s “large emigration of all Jews” proved impossible, Nazi ideology implied that physical extermination of the Jews was neither impossible nor “un-German.”

On May 28 Himmler prepared a summary of Hitler’s reactions to the proposal about “alien races in the East.” Himmler noted that Hitler had read “the six pages and considered them very good and correct.” According to Himmler, Hitler directed that Himmler’s report should be handled with “utmost secrecy,” but he also authorized that key Nazi leaders in the East should be informed that “the Führer acknowledged and sanctioned this report as a directive.” Himmler, who did more than any other Nazi to implement the deadly logic of racism, had obtained one of the authorizations that would help him launch the “Final Solution” when its time came.

That time had not yet come in the spring of 1940, but it drew closer by the end of the year. On December 18 1940, Hitler secretly ordered preparation for Operation Barbarossa, the code name for Nazi Germany’s invasion of the Soviet Union.

Hitler openly admits knowledge of the Holocaust:

“This criminal race (of Jews) has the two million dead of the (First) World War on their conscience, and now hundreds of thousands. Let no one say to me: we cannot send them into the mire. Who concerns themselves about our men? It is good if preceding us is the terror that we are exterminating the Jews. The attempt to found a Jewish state will fail”.

—To Himmer and Heydrich in Hitler’s command headquarters, Oct. 25, 1941

With that 1941 invasion, the mass murder of Jews in Eastern Europe would begin in earnest.

http://www.holocaustchronicle.org/StaticPages/187.html

In June, 1941, Himmler told Rudolf Hoess, the commandant of Auschwitz (not to be confused with Rudolf Hess, Hitler’s deputy) that Hitler had ordered the Endloesung, or Final Solution of the Jewish question, and that Hoess would play a major role at Auschwitz.

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Bormann was invariably the advocate of extremely harsh, radical measures when it came to the treatment of Jews, of the conquered eastern peoples or prisoners of war. He signed the decree of 9 October 1942 prescribing that “the permanent elimination of the Jews from the territories of Greater Germany can no longer be carried out by emigration but by the use of ruthless force in the special camps (sonderlageren) of the East.” A further decree, signed by Bormann on 1 July 1943, gave Adolf Eichmann absolute powers over Jews, who now came under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Gestapo.

Bormann’s memos concerning the Slavs make it clear that he regarded them as a ‘Sovietized mass’ of sub-humans who had no claim to national independence. In a brutal memo of 19 August 1942 he wrote: “The Slavs are to work for us. In so far as we do not need them, they may die. Slav fertility is not desirable.”
*Nazis on the Slavs

By the end of 1942 Bormann was virtually Hitler’s deputy and his closest collaborator, showing an uncanny ability to exploit his weaknesses and personal peculiarities in order to increase his own power. Always in attendance on the Fuhrer, taking care of tiresome administrative detail and skilfully steering Hitler into approval of his own schemes, Bormann acquired the inside track for displacing dangerous rivals like Goering , Goebbels, Speer and even Himmler, whose access to the Fuhrer was controlled by him.

jewishvirtual library/bormann
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On December 17, 1942, British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden told the House of Commons: “The German authorities are now carrying into effect Hitler’s oft repeated intention to exterminate the Jewish people of Europe.”

Amazing speech, Hitler admits he will destroy the Jews, 1942. So then what is the controversy? He himself admitted it. *Unfortunately the vid seems to have been posted by supporters of Jihad Nazism.

*http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/speer.html
Albert Speer:

“I was present at the session of the Reichstag of 30th January 1939, when Hitler assured us that in case of a war, not the Germans, but the Jews would be annihilated.

“Hitler’s method of work was that he gave even important commands to his confidants verbally. Also in the leader’s records of my interviews with Hitler completely preserved in the German Federal Archives – there were numerous commands even in important areas which Hitler clearly gave by word of mouth only. It therefore conforms with his method of work and must not be regarded as an oversight, that a written order for the extermination of the Jews does not exist.”

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Hitler lies, pretending he is preventing a Soviet attack on Europe as a pretext for attacking the USSR:

“Today, we have overwhelming and authentic proof that Russia intended to attack; we are also quite clear about the date on which the attack was to take place. In view of the great danger, the proportions of which we realise perhaps only today to the fullest extent, I can only thank God that He enlightened me at the proper time and that He gave me the strength to do what had to be done!

“To this, not only millions of German soldiers owe their lives, but Europe its very existence. This much I may state today: had this wave of over 20,000 tanks, hundreds of divisions, tens of thousands of guns, accompanied by more than 10,000 aircraft, suddenly moved against the Reich, Europe would have been lost. Fate has destined a number of nations to forestall this attack, to ward it off with the sacrifice of their blood. Had Finland not decided immediately to take up arms for the second time, the leisurely bourgeois life of the other Nordic countries would soon have come to an end.

“Had the German Reich not faced the enemy with her soldiers and arms, a flood would have swept over Europe, which once and for all would have finished the ridiculous British idea of maintaining the European balance of power in all its senselessness and stupid tradition.”

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/hitler_declares_war.html

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Hitler: “In my speech before the Reichstag on the first of September 1939, I spoke of two matters: first, since we are forced into war, neither the threat of weapons nor a period of transition shall conquer us; second, if world Jewry launches another war in order to destroy the Aryan nations of Europe, it will not be the Aryan nations that will be destroyed, but the Jews…Once the Germans Jews laughed at my prophecy. I do not know whether they are still laughing, or whether they are laughing on the other side of their faces. I can simply repeat — they will stop laughing altogether, and I will fulfill my prophecy in this field too. “

Speech to the Reichstag
September 1942

At a public speech in Munich, November 8, 1942, Hitler told his audience (see Jaeckel, 1989 for this and above Hitler quotes):

“You will recall the session of the Reichstag during which I declared: If Jewry should imagine that it could bring about an international world war to exterminate the European races, the result will not be the extermination of the European races, but the extermination of Jewry in Europe. People always laughed about me as a prophet. Of those who laughed then, countless numbers no longer laugh today, and those who still laugh now will perhaps no longer laugh a short time from now. This realization will spread beyond Europe throughout the entire world. International Jewry will be recognized in its full demonic peril; we National Socialists will see to that.”

Thirty-three [sic: twenty-three] years later, on April 29, 1945, at 4:00 A.M., just one day before his suicide, Hitler commanded his successors in his political testament to carry on the fight: “Above all I charge the leaders of the nation and those under them to scrupulous observance of the laws of race and to merciless opposition to the universal poisoner of all peoples, International Jewry” (Snyder, p. 521).

source: nizkor
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Speaking with Himmler and Heydrich on 25 October (1941), Hitler said: “Let no one say to me: we cannot send them into the swamp. Who then cares about our own people? It is good when terror precedes us that we are exterminating the Jews. We are writing history anew, from the racial standpoint.” source: Christopher Browning

On December 13, 1941, Hans Frank told a cabinet session at Cracow, his HQ (N.D. 3363-PS, p. 892):

As far as the Jews are concerned, I want to tell you quite frankly that they must be done away with in one way or another . . . Gentlemen, I must ask you to rid yourself of all feeling of pity. We must annihilate the Jews.

August 19, 1941, after a visit to Hitler’s headquarters:

The Fuehrer is convinced his prophecy in the Reichstag is becoming a fact: that should Jewry succeed in again provoking a new war, this would end with their annihilation. It is coming true in these weeks and months with a certainty that appears almost sinister. In the East the Jews are paying the price, in Germany they have already paid in part and they will have to pay more in the future.

February 24, 1942, after a visit with Hitler in Berlin:

The Fuehrer again voices his determination to remorselessly cleanse Europe of its Jews. There can be no sentimental feelings here. The Jews have deserved the catastrophe that they are now experiencing. They shall experience their own annihilation together with the destruction of our enemies. We must accelerate this process with cold brutality; by doing so we are doing an inestimable service to humanity . . . .

In a speech of September 23, 1942, to 60 German newspaper editors in the Throne Room of the Propaganda Ministry in Berlin, Goebbels made it clear that the press must keep silent about what they all knew was the outcome for the remaining Berlin Jews:

There are still 48,000 in Berlin. They know with deadly certainty that as the war progresses they will be packed off to the East and delivered up to a murderous fate. They already feel the inevitable harshness of physical extermination and therefore they harm the Reich whenever possible whilst they yet live.

http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/orgs/american/skeptic-magazine/skeptic-10.html

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November 2, 1943 Himmler’s telegram to the Mufti: ‘To the Grand Mufti: The National Socialist movement of Greater Germany has, since its inception, inscribed upon its flag the fight against the world Jewry. It has therefore followed with particular sympathy the struggle of freedom-loving Arabs, especially in Palestine, against Jewish interlopers. In the recognition of this enemy and of the common struggle against it lies the firm foundation of the natural alliance that exists between the National Socialist Greater Germany and the freedom-loving Muslims of the whole world. In this spirit I am sending you on the anniversary of the infamous Balfour declaration my hearty greetings and wishes for the successful pursuit of your struggle until the final victory.’ Reichsfuehrer S.S. Heinrich Himmler
source: wiki, Mufti

Himmler, Poznan speech on the Holocaust. He often used ‘Jews ‘and ‘partisans’ as interchangeable words. (1943) This occurred after “Action Reinhard“, or the killing of the Jews of the “General Gouvernement” of Poland was completed. Over one and a half million Jews died during this period in a number of camps in Poland.

http://www.holocaust-history.org/himmler-poznan/speech-text.shtml

http://www.holocaustchronicle.org/StaticPages/44.html

Look at this eerie antisemitic woodcut, from 1493

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Heinrich Himmler and the Holocaust
On 18 December 1941, Himmler’s appointment book shows he met with Hitler. The entry for that day poses the question “What to do with the Jews of Russia?”, and then answers the question “als Partisanen auszurotten” (exterminate them as partisans”).[18]
source: Bauer, Rethinking the Holocaust (18, footnote, on wiki)

1944 January 26 Himmler makes an address to more than 260 high-ranking army and navy officers in Posen. Himmler tells them that Hitler, himself, had given him the mission to exterminate the Jews. “I can assure you,” Himmler told them, “the Jewish question has been solved. Six million have been killed.” According to an eyewitness, all, but five officers, applauded enthusiastically. (Toland, “Hitler” )

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Heinrich Himmler speech, June 1941

“It is a question of existence,
thus it will be a racial struggle of pitiless severity, in the course of which 20 to 30 million Slavs and Jews will perish through military actions and crises of food supply.

Sept 1941,
Even the child in the cradle must be trampled down like a poisonous toad. We are living in an age of iron, during which it is necessary to sweep with iron brooms.

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/Himorder.html

I herewith order that the resettlement of the entire Jewish population of the Government-General be carried out and completed by December 31, 1942.

For all these reasons a total cleansing is necessary and therefore to be carried out.

[‘resettlement’ and ‘cleansing’ and ‘transportation to the east’ are euphemisms for mass murder]

Himmler’s Decree of Deportation and Murder of All Polish Jews
(November 23, 1942)

http://www.worldfuturefund.org­/wffmaster/Reading/Germany/Him­mlerspeeches.htm

May 24,1944, Heinrich Himmler speech admits Holocaust.

“In conclusion, therefore, Wehrmacht documentation poses another problem for Holocaust deniers. There is simply so much of this material, found across a range of archives, which converges on one conclusion, that the number of people that a ‘conspiracy’ would have required becomes even more absurd to contemplate. The Wehrmacht is a massive source of contemporary perpetrator information that leaves no doubt that a genocide was being committed in the USSR. ” (ibid)

Himmler’s Farnichtungskommission

Himmler on the Extermination of the Jews
(June 22, 1944)

“…It became necessary to resolve another important question. It was the most terrible task and the most terrible order which could have been given to any organization: the order to solve the Jewish problem…This is a good time — we had the toughness (resolve) to exterminate the Jews in our sphere (area). Don’t ask how difficult it was. As soldiers, try to understand how difficult it is to execute such an order. The order was necessary…I told them: First, there is the order, and second, our conscience tells us to carry on ruthlessly with this cleansing process. And if anyone comes along and says: ‘Well, you know, I understand very well your killing grown-up Jews, but how can you kill women and children?’, I say this: ‘These children will grow up one day.’…

H. Himmler
source:

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/HimmlerExterminationJews.html

1944 October 26 Himmler issues orders to destroy the crematoriums at Auschwitz-Birkenau in an attempt to eliminate the evidence of Nazi mass murder.

http://www.humanitas-international.org/holocaust/1944tbse.html

1944 November 2 Himmler’s order of October 26 arrives at Auschwitz: “I forbid any further annihilation of Jews.”

Upon his further orders, all but one of the crematoriums are dismantled, the burning pits covered up and planted over with grass, and the gas pipes and other equipment shipped to concentration camps in Germany. The single remaining crematorium is for the disposal of those who die of natural causes and the gassing of about 200 surviving members of the Sonderkommando. The final solution is formally over. Yet tens of thousands of Jews will continue to die of brutality and neglect.

1944 November 24 Himmler issues orders to close the remaining crematorium at Auschwitz, and gives instruction to destroy any remaining evidence. (Apparatus)

1944 November 28 The last gassings take place at Auschwitz. More than 8,000 have been gassed since the first of November. (Atlas)

http://www.humanitas-international.org/holocaust/1944tbse.html

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http://holocaustcontroversies.blogspot.com/2008/08/himmlers-posen-speech.html
*1943 speech at Posen (Poznan)

Es trat an uns die Frage heran: Wie ist es mit den Frauen und Kindern? Ich habe mich entschlossen, auch hier eine ganz klare Lösung zu finden. Ich hielt mich nämlich nicht für berechtigt, die Männer auszurotten- sprich also, umzubringen oder umbringen zu lassen – und die Rächer in Gestalt der Kinder für unsere Söhne und Enkel groß werden zu lassen. Es mußte der schwere Entschluß gefaßt werden, dieses Volk von der Erde verschwinden zu lassen.

“We came to the question: How is it with the women and children? I decided to find a clear solution here as well. I did not consider myself justified to exterminate the men – that is, to kill them or have them killed – and allow the avengers of our sons and grandsons in the form of their children to grow up. The difficult decision had to be taken to make this people disappear from the earth.”

Himmler thus helpfully defined his precise meaning when he used ‘auszurotten’ in the second Posen speech. He then reiterated this meaning in a further speech at Sonthofen on May 24, 1944:

“As to the Jewish women and children, I did not believe I had a right to let these children grow up to become avengers who would kill our fathers [sic] and grandchildren. That, I thought, would be cowardly. Thus the problem was solved without half-measures.”

May 24,1944, HH speech admits Holocaust in graphic detail to the Generals.

www1.yadvashem.org/yv/en/education/books/auschwitz_pr­ocess.asp
book on Auschwitz trial in Germany

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/american_originals/himm2.html
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http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/holocaust/timeprint.html
useful timeline of the Holocaust

“The final solution to the Jewish question” at a conference in Wannsee Germany. The transcript of this gathering on January 20, 1942 , as they devised the salient details of their future destruction, including using extermination through labor as one component of their so-called “Final Solution”:

“Under proper leadership, the Jews shall now in the course of the Final Solution be suitably brought to their work assignments in the East. Able-bodied Jews are to be lead to these areas to build roads in large work columns separated by sex, during which a large part will undoubtedly drop out through a process of natural reduction. As it will undoubtedly represent the most robust portion, the possible final remainder will have to be handled appropriately, as it would constitute a group of naturally-selected individuals, and would form the seed of a new Jewish resistance.”
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Waffen-SS

While crimes can clearly be attributed to battle formations, both combatant- and non-combatant-related, it is also clear from Stein’s presentation that a majority of Waffen SS units were not likely involved in such events. This is not to say that Stein presents an apologist view, quite to the contrary – he presents an honest assessment of guilt – the Waffen SS was guilty but it is unfair to claim all units were simply butchers.

Yet equally unfair would be a claim that the Waffen SS was simply an army free of guilt. When it comes to connections between the Waffen SS and the holocaust the story is one mostly of semantics. As Stein points out it is beyond doubt that the SS represented the system by which Hitler attempted (and nearly succeeded) to murder all of the European jews and other “Untermensch” (subhumans). It is also clear that many of the units involved were, at least on paper, part of the Waffen SS.

http://www.humanitas-international.org/holocaust/1944tbse.html

“Regarding the Jewish question, the Fuehrer is determined to clean the table. He prophesized that should the Jews once again bring about a world war, they would be annihilated. These were no empty words. The world war has come, therefore the annihilation of the Jews has to be its inevitable consequence. The question has to be examined without any sentimentality. We are not here to pity Jews, but to have pity for our own German people. If the German people have sacrificed about 160,000 dead in the battles in the east, the instigators of this bloody conflict will have to pay for it with their lives.”

—Goebbels diaries, Part II, Volume 2, pg. 498 – entry for December 13, 1941

Echoing his above statements along with the January 30, 1939 speech by Hitler, in an article written in 1943 entitled “The War and the Jews” Goebbels wrote:

“None of the Führer’s prophetic words has come so inevitably true as his prediction that if Jewry succeeded in provoking a second world war, the result would be not the destruction of the Aryan race, but rather the wiping out of the Jewish race. This process is of vast importance, and will have unforeseeable consequences that will require time. But it can no longer be halted. It must only be guided in the right direction.”

http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Final_Solution

After this decision, plans were made to put the Final Solution into effect. For example, on December 16, at a meeting of the officials of the General Government, fully titled the General Government for the Occupied Polish Territories from 1939 to 1941, and also called Restpolen colloquially, refers to a part of the territories of Poland under German military occupation during World War II and that were a separate part of “Greater Germany.”

Hans Michael Frank was a German lawyer who worked for the Nazi party during the 1920s and 1930s and later became a high-ranking official in Nazi Germany…
referred to Hitler’s speech as he described the coming annihilation of the Jews:

“As for the Jews, well, I can tell you quite frankly that one way or another we have to put an end to them. The Führer once put it this way: if the combined forces of Judaism should again succeed in unleashing a world war, that would mean the end of the Jews in Europe. …I urge you: Stand together with me … on this idea at least: Save your sympathy for the German people alone. Don’t waste it on anyone else in the world, … I would therefore be guided by the basic expectation that they are going to disappear. They have to be gotten rid of. At present I am involved in discussions aimed at having them moved away to the east. In January there is going to be an important meeting in Berlin to discuss this question. I am going to send State Secretary Dr. Bouhler to this meeting. It is scheduled to take place in the offices of the RSHA in the presence of Obergruppenfuhrer. Was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank that was first created in 1932 as a rank of the SA and until 1942 it was the highest SS rank inferior only to Reichsführer-SS.
..
Heydrich. Whatever its outcome, a great Jewish emigration will commence. But what is going to happen to these Jews? Do you imagine there will be settlement villages for them in the Ostland? In Berlin we were told: Why are you making all this trouble for us? There is nothing we can do with them here in the Ostland or in the Reich Commissariat. Liquidate them yourselves! … Here are 3.5 million Jews that we can’t shoot, we can’t poison. But there are some things we can do, and one way or another these measures will successfully lead to a liquidation. They are related to the measures under discussion with the Reich…. Where and how this will all take place will be a matter for offices that we will have to establish and operate here. I will report to you on their operation at the appropriate time.”

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www1.yadvashem.org/
Odot­/prog/image_into.asp?id=4064l­ang=EN;type_id=2addr=/IMAGE_T­YPE/4064

This very important document shows the truth about what happened in the ‘Action Reinhard’ camps. Posted in the comments section.
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Proof that the Waffen SS was implicated in the Holocaust:

‘Fegelein: As a component of Himmlers Kommandostab RFSS, Fegelein’s Waffen-SS cavalry unit murdered tens of thousands of Jewish civilians in the Pripyet Marshes area of White Russia during the late summer of 1941. Thus Fegelein was a Waffen-SS commander directly implicated in the Holocaust.

http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/185155/auschwitz_oven_builders_scrutinized_at_exhibition/index.html

Here the descendant of a Nazi engineer speaks out. I wonder what deniers have to say about this.
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Father Desbois.

“It’s beautiful here, isn’t it?” he says. “We could stop anywhere here and find a mass grave.”

Father Patrick Desbois’ book, “The Holocaust by Bullets: A Priest’s Journey to Uncover the Truth Behind the Murder of 1.5 Million Jews,” was published in August 2008 by Palgrave MacMillan. 272 pages. The German translation, “Der Vergessene Holocaust. Die Ermordung der ukrainischen Juden,” was published in January 2009 by Berlin Verlag. 352 pages. The book was orginally published in French under the title “Porteur de mémoires.”

http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,653938-2,00.html

“The evidence is overwhelming that the knowledge that Germans were killing Jews on a large scale was extremely widespread in Germany. Though the program as such was a secret.

“It probably wasn’t known by many people that there was a formal program of total extermination. But on the Soviet front, where there were millions of German soldiers, the mass killing of Jews was done in full view of the army. The army was often participating and providing logistical support.

“If you ask the perpetrators, as the Federal Republic’s legal authorities did, whether they shot anybody, you’ll find out that virtually nobody in these units actually shot anybody. They all deny it”.

(So the Wehrmacht participated in the Holocaust as well).

“It is suspected that the testing of I.G. Farben’s poison gases on humans was known in the highest echelons of I.G. After the war, Georg von Schnitzler swore that Ambros, Schmitz, and Ter Meer were aware of these activities. According to British intelligence, one of them was reported to have “justified the experiments not only on the grounds that the inmates of concentration camps would have been killed anyway by the Nazis, but also on the grounds that the experiments had a humanitarian aspect in that the lives of countless German workers were saved thereby” (Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Military Affairs, U.S. Senate, 79th Congress, 1st Session (1945), pursuant to S. Res. 107 and 146, Elimination of German Resources for War, part X, p. 1276). “

**Belzec:

From late 1997 until early 1998, a thorough archaeological survey of the site at Belzec was conducted as there was no memorial yet at the site. The survey was headed by Andrzej Kola, director of the Underwater Archaeological Department at the University of Torun, and Mieczyslaw Gora, senior curator of the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology in Lodz. The team identified the railway sidings and remains of a number of buildings. They also found 33 mass graves, the largest of which were 210 by 60 feet. The team estimated that they had found 15,000 unburned bodies, and “The largest mass graves … contained unburned human remains (parts and pieces of skulls with hair and skin attached)and entire bodies preserved in wax-fat transformation. The foul smelling bottom layer of the graves consisted of several inches to a meter thick of human fat resembling black soap. One grave contained uncrushed human bones so closely packed that the drill could not penetrate.”[15]

source: wikipedia

Rare view of Belzec
http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,672519,00.html

=============
Plus there are the broad hints that Hitler dropped in his speeches of 30 January 1941; 30 January 1942; 24 February 1942; 30 September 1942, and 8 November 1942 that he knew of the Holocaust[94] Finally, Craig cited Himmler’s remark of May 1944 where he stated he had orders from an unnamed higher authority (who Craig argued could only be Hitler) for the “Final Solution”.

In addition there is Hitler’s Speech to the Gauleiters, 12 Dec 1941.
Eberhard Jäckel used Hitler’s order of 13 March 1941, ordering that the Einsatzgruppen be reestablished for Operation Barbarossa, as proof of the Führer’s involvement in the Holocaust.

http://www.holocaust-history.org/december-12-1941/

Christian Gerlach, historian, showed that the above -mentioned quote found in Goebbels’ diary, plus in Hans Franck’s notes in his government diary : December 16. “In respect of the Jewish question, the Fuehrer has decided,” so says Goebbels, “to make a clean sweep. The world war is here, the annihilation of the Jews must be the necessary result. This question is to be regarded without sentimentalism. We are not here to have sympathy with the Jews, but rather with our German people. If the German people have sacrificed 160,000 dead in the eastern campaign, so the authors of this bloody conflict will have to pay for it with their lives.”

On December 14 Himmler met the man who in Hitler’s Chancellery was responsible for the murder of the German mentally ill – Victor Brack. Already annihilation in gas chambers had been described as the “application of the Brack remedy.” Himmler noted the speaking points as “course in east ministry, euthanasia.” At the same time, Brack’s superior, Reichsleiter Phillip Bouhler had two meetings with Hitler. In all these conversations the same theme was discussed: the transfer of the “well practiced personnel” that had run the gas chambers of “euthanasia” to the extermination camps that would now be built and built up for the murder of all Jews. As Bouhler put it: the transfer of his people “to a definitive solution of the Jewish question.”

holocaustcontroversies.­blogspot.com/2008/08/wehrmacht­-complicity-in-holocaust-in.ht­ml

www1.yadvashem.org/yv/en/education/books/auschwitz_
pr­ocess.asp
book on Auschwitz trial in Germany


BBC, “Fatal Attraction of Adolf Hitler”. This one is pretty interesting. There’s a better one put out by BBC called “the making of Adolf Hitler”, which shows his early career as a bike messenger in the Great War.

==============
.
========
“Document 1517-PS [translation]” in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume IV: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1947. pp. 55-58.

TOP SECRET

MEMORANDUM About Discussions [of Rosenberg] with the Fuehrer on 12/4/1941

To begin with, I [Rosenberg] asked the Fuehrer about my speech in the Sportpalast and referred to several points which seemed to call for further discussion. The Fuehrer was of the opinion that the speech was given prior to the declaration of war by Japan and therefore under different suppositions, but in view of this, still desires to think over several points. It probably would not be appropriate if I were to officially say that the provinces in the East were to remain under Germany. I said thereupon that I, too, had considered this point, that one can probably only say that the Eastern Provinces [Ostland] will remain under German protection. The Fuehrer was of the opinion, only to go so far that the provinces never would come under communism now from the German side appear as secured.

I remarked on the Jewish question that the comments about the New York Jews must perhaps be changed somewhat after the conclusion (of matters in the East). I took the standpoint, not to speak of the extermination [Ausrottung] of the Jews. The Fuehrer affirmed this and said that they had burdened the war upon us and that they had brought the destruction; it is no wonder if the results would strike them first.
——–

I posted the Yad Vashem 30 page document in its entirety in the comments section. It contains Arad’s essay on the “Action Reinhard” camps in Poland and contains a powerful affirmation of the facticity of the Holocaust.

==
Wannsee Conference (20 Jan 1942) members who lived on:

Georg Leibbrandt was charged with war crimes but the case against him was dismissed in 1950. He died in June 1982.
Otto Hofmann was sentenced to 25 years in prison for war crimes, but was pardoned in 1954. He died in December 1982.
Gerhard Klopfer was charged with war crimes but was released for lack of evidence. He became a tax advisor, later dying in January 1987.

source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wannsee_conference
In 1965, historian Joseph Wulf tried to have the Wannsee House made into a Holocaust memorial and document center. But the Berlin Senate did not want Holocaust Memorials and spurned Joseph Wulf. In his last letter to his son David, 2 August 1974, Wulf wrote, “I have published 18 books about the Third Reich and they have had no effect. You can document everything to death for the Germans. There is a democratic regime in Bonn. Yet the mass murderers walk around free, live in their little houses, and grow flowers.”[42] Deeply despondent over the death of his wife and the collapse of his plans for a document center, Wulf committed suicide, age 61, by jumping from the fifth floor window of his Berlin apartment, Giesebrechtstraße 12, Charlottenburg. In 1992 the Wannsee House became a Holocaust memorial. The Joseph Wulf Bibliothek/Mediothek on the second floor holds thousands of books on Nazism, anti-Semitism, and the Jewish genocide, along with many videos, microfilm texts, and original Nazi era documents. Wulf’s last letter is on display in Berlin’s Jewish Museum. (source: wikipedia)

It must be seriously considered,” wrote never charged jurist Rolf Heinz Höppner in June 16, 1941, “whether the most humane solution is not to finish off the Jews who are unable to work by means of a quickly working agent. In any event, this would be more appropriate than to let them starve.” The letter was addressed to Eichmann who telephoned almost daily to Höppner, his agent in Posen. “Give me that in writing” Eichmann would have said, and put the written letter into the hierarchical process. Höppner did not want an order, he asked for the complete examination of his new recommendation. He found it audacious, “partially fantastic” but “completely feasible.” In addition, he spoke exclusively of the murder of those unable to work, not all the 500,000 Jews for which he was responsible in the Warthegau and especially in the Lodz Ghetto. The others he wanted to confine in a work camp, all child bearing women sterilized, “so that the Jewish problem will be completely resolved with this generation.”

http://www.holocaust-history.org/december-12-1941/

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10 Responses to “Hitler, Himmler and the Holocaust; Dr. Goebbels; bormann; wannsee conference; waffen ss”

  1. paolosilv Says:

    After invasion of Soviet Union, 22 June 1941

    *****Goering:

    Docu T/179

    Berlin, July 31, 1941

    To Gruppenführer Heydrich:

    Supplementing the task assigned to you by the decree of January 24, 1939, to solve the Jewish problem by means of emigration and evacuation in the best possible way according to present conditions, I hereby charge you to carry out preparations as regards organizational, financial, and material matters for a total solution (Gesamtlösung) of the Jewish question in all the territories of Europe under German occupation.

    Where the competency of other central organizations touches on this matter, these organizations are to collaborate.

    I charge you further to submit to me as soon as possible a general plan of the administrative material and financial measures necessary for carrying out the desired final solution (Endlösung) of the Jewish question.

    Göring

    …and Eichmann’s offhand comment on it:

    “We can attribute it to the period when emigration was no longer possible, and the radical solution began.”

  2. Today’s World Must Understand the Crimes of Communism In Order to Survive North Capitol Street Says:

    […] Himmler and the Holocaust « Paolosilv's Blog […]

  3. paolosilv Says:
    __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 1/30 School for Holocaust Studies “Operation Reinhard”: Extermintation Camps of Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka Yitzhak Arad Soon after the task forces had began their campaign of extermination in the occupied areas of the Soviet Union, the deputy of the Governor General Hans Frank, Secretary of State Dr. Buehler, remarked at the Wannsee Conference: …that the General Government would welcome it if a start were to be made on the final solution of this question in the General Government, because here transportation does not pose a real problem nor would the deployment of a labor force interfere with the process of this operation. Jews should be removed from the area of the General Government as quickly as possible, because it is here that the Jew represents a serious danger as a carrier of epidemics, and in addition his incessant black marketeering constantly upsets the country’s economic structure. Of the approximately 2.5 million Jews in question, the majority are anyway unfit for work. Secretary of State Dr. Buehler furthermore stated that the solution of the Jewish question in the General Government is under the control of the Chief of the Security Police and the SD and that his activities are supported by the authorities in the General Government. He [Buehler] has only one request: that the Jewish question in this region be solved as quickly as possible.1 Dr. Buehler’s request was given a positive response. The General Government consisted of the districts of Warsaw, Cracow, Lublin, Radom, and Lvov. According to the estimate of the German authorities, they were inhabited by approximately 2,284,000 Jews. A special organization was set up in Lublin to prepare for their extermination. The actual killing was to be carried out in three death camps — Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka, at the eastern border of the General Government. The geographical location of the extermination sites also served as a pretext for the claim that the Jews were to be deported to ghettos in the East. Their disappearance could thus be explained in terms of their transportation to labor camps in the huge areas then occupied by the German armed forces in the .1 The so-called “Wannsee Protokoll,” original in the Archives of the Foreign Office, Bonn __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 2/30 School for Holocaust Studies Soviet Union. SS-Brigadefuehrer Otto Globocnik was entrusted with conducting Operation Reinhard — named after Reinhard Heydrich who had been assassinated on May 2, 1942. In this office he was Himmler’s immediate subordinate; as the commandant of SS and Police in the Lublin district he was subordinate to the Supreme SS- and Polizeifuehrer of the General Government, Obergruppenfuehrer Friedrich Krueger. The principal tasks of Globocnik and his staff in Operation Reinhard were: the overall planning of the deportations and of the extermination operations; the construction of extermination camps; to coordinate the deportation of Jews from the different administrative districts to the extermination camps; the killing of the Jews in the camps; to secure their belongings and valuables and transfer them to the appropriate German authority. Headquarters of Operation Reinhard was responsible for coordinating the timing of the transports with the absorption capacity of the camps. The organization and supervision of the respective transports from the entire area of the General Government and later on also from other European countries was the task of the RSHA and its departments as well as of the supreme commandant of the SS and Police and his subordinate departments. To date no written orders by Himmler to Globocnik concerning Operation Reinhard have been discovered. A reason for this may be that either Himmler issued no written statement on this subject, or that any orders and directives were destroyed.2 The Personnel of Operation Reinhard Preparations for Operation Reinhard were initiated more than six months before Himmler’s order to commence the Aktion and at the latest two months prior to the Wannsee Conference. The first tasks were to organize the labor force and to construct the extermination centers. Upon completion of his task, Globocnik, in a letter dated October 27, 1943 to the Personnel Headquarters in Berlin, provided a detailed report, which sets out the total number of 2 Nuremberg Document 4024-PS (covering letter by Globocnik to the report to Himmler of January 5, 1944, concerning the conclusion of “Operation Reinhard”). __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 3/30 School for Holocaust Studies personnel involved in this operation — 434 men.3 In the construction and handling of the gassing installations, experienced former workers from the “Euthanasia” programs occupied leading positions in the planning, building, and administration of the Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka extermination camps. In the late autumn of 1941, the Belzec and later the Sobibor and Treblinka extermination camps were set up, as was a training camp for “foreign” personnel — Ukrainian volunteers — in Trawniki, as well as the camp in the “old airport” of Lublin where the clothes and movable belongings of the victims were stored. As head of the main department on Globocnik’s staff, SS-Sturmbannfuehrer Hoefle was responsible for organizing and deploying the work force. He also coordinated the timing of the arrival of the extermination transports at the different camps. During the first months of Operation Reinhard, all extermination camps were under Globocnik’s direct control; at the beginning of August 1942 Christian Wirth was appointed Inspector of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka.4 About twenty to thirty SS-men served in each camp. Most of them had formerly been engaged in the “Euthanasia” Operation. The camp commandants held the rank of SS-Ober- or Hauptstumfuehrer. The others also held noncommissioned officer ranks. No rank-and-file SS-men were employed in any of the camps. Units composed of Ukrainians with some volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans) were assigned to assist the German camp personnel. The formation and training of such units took place in the “Trawniki SS-Training-Camp” which had been set up in the autumn of 1941. Afterwards, they were distributed among the camps in groups of 60 to 120 men with their own leaders, usually ethnic Germans. Some of the units assembled in Trawniki were also brought into action in the ghettos during the deportation of Jews, for example, at the time of the transportation of the Jews from the Warsaw ghetto to the Treblinka 3 Original in the US Documentation Center, Berlin. 4 The documents do not specify that Wirth’s area of command extended also to Kulmhof. __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 4/30 School for Holocaust Studies extermination camp.5 The first Jews brought to the camps were those from the vicinity. They were used for construction work and also performed various services for the German camp personnel. They were generally skilled workers or craftsmen such as carpenters, blacksmiths, tailors, and shoemakers. As soon as the construction phase was completed, most of them were killed in trial gassings. When the organized mass gassings began, the camp administration needed more and more workers from amongst the death transports. A few especially skilled workers were employed in the extermination camps according to the specific directives of the German and Ukrainian camp leaders. Others had to work in the gas chambers, removing and incinerating the corpses, and also sorting the clothes and baggage of the victims. In the initial period, in particular, they were kept alive for only a few days or weeks before being killed and replaced by Jews from newly arrived transports. In each of the camps the Jewish labor force consisted of 600 to 1,000 prisoners. At a later stage Jewish prisoners became part of the permanent staff of the camp. While members of the German or Ukrainian camp personnel were occasionally transferred to other camps, once Jewish prisoners had entered a camp they never left it again. The Construction of the Belzec Extermination Camp Belzec, a small town in the southeast of the district of Lublin, close to the border of the district of Lvov and on the Lublin-Zamosc-Rawa-Ruska-Lvov railroad line, was selected as the locality for the first extermination camp. The area specified for the camp was a railroad siding half a kilometer from the Belzec railroad station . The Pole Stanislaw Kozak described the beginning of its construction: In October of the year 1941 three SS-men came to Belzec and demanded 20 men for the work from the municipal administration. The local council chose 20 workers from among the inhabitants of Belzec, and I was one of them. The Germans selected the terrain to the southeast of the railroad station, which adjoined a siding. The railway 5 StA Wiesbaden AZ: 8 Js 1145-60 with plentiful evidence (see indictment, p. 329); verdict in the criminal proceedings StA Hamburg AZ: 147 Ks 2/75 of 17.5.1976 (ZSL Misc. vol. 519). __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 5/30 School for Holocaust Studies line to Lvov runs along this sidetrack. We began to work on November 1, 1941, with the construction of huts on the plot adjoining the siding. One of the huts which stood right next to the siding was 50 m. long and 12.5 m. wide. The second hut, which was 25 m. long and 12.5 m. wide, was intended for the Jews who went to the baths. Next to this hut we built a third hut, which was 12 m. long and 8 m. wide. This hut was divided into three sections by wooden walls, so that each section was 4 m. wide and 8 m. long. These sections were 2 m. high. The interior walls of these huts were built such that we nailed the boards to them, filling in the empty space with sand. Inside the hut the walls were covered with cardboard; in addition the floors and the walls, to a height of 1.10 m. [were covered] with sheet-zinc. A 3 m. broad avenue, fenced in with barbed wire, which was also 3 m. high, led from the first to the second of the above-mentioned huts. A part of this fence, facing the siding and beyond it, was covered with pines and firs which had been specially felled, in order to conceal the siding. From the second hut a covered passage, ca. 2m. wide, 2 m. high, and ca. 10 m. long, led to the third hut. By way of this passage one reached the passage of the third hut, from which three doors led to its three sections. Each section of this hut had a door on its northern side, approximately 1.80 m. high and 1.10 m. wide. These doors, like the doors to the passage, were closely fitted with rubber. All the doors in this hut opened toward the outside. The doors were very strongly built of three-inch-thick planks and were secured against pressure from inside by a wooden bolt that was pushed inside two iron hooks specially fitted for this purpose. In each of the three sections of this hut water pipes were fixed at a height of 10 cm. from the floor. In addition, on the western wall of each section of this hut water pipes branched off at an angle to a height of l m. from the floor, ending in an opening directed toward the middle of the hut. The elbow-pipes were connected to pipes which ran along the walls and under the floor… The trench has been dug by 70 “blacks,” that is to say, by former Soviet soldiers who worked with the Germans. It was 6 m. deep, 20 m. wide, and 50 m. long. This was the first ditch in which the Jews, killed in the extermination camp, were buried. The “blacks” dug this ditch in six weeks, at the time when we built the huts. This ditch was later continued as far as the middle of the northern border. That was already at a time when we no longer worked on building the huts. The first hut which I mentioned was at a distance of approximately 20 m. from the siding and 100 m. from the southern border. At that time when we Poles were building the huts, the “blacks” put up the fence around the extermination camp; it consisted of posts with closely spaced barbed wire. After we had built the three huts described above, the Germans dismissed us Poles from work on December 22, 1941.6 6 StA Munich I, AZ: 22Js 64-83-61 (AZ. ZSL AR-Z 252/59, vol. Vl, p. 1179). __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 6/30 School for Holocaust Studies In the second half of December, Christian Wirth was appointed Camp Commandant of Belzec, with Josef Oberhauser as his adjutant. SSScharfuehrer Erich Fuchs reported on Wirth’s arrival in Belzec: One day in the winter of 1941, Wirth put together a transport to Poland. I was selected along with. eight to ten others and transferred to Belzec in three motorcars… Upon our arrival in Belzec we met Friedel Schwarz and two other SS-men whose names I do not remember. They served as guards during the building of a hut which we were to fit out as a gas chamber. Wirth told us that in Belzec “all Jews were to be bumped off.” For this purpose the huts were fitted out as gas chambers. I installed shower nozzles in the gas chambers. The nozzles were not connected to a water pipe because they were only meant to serve as camouflage for the gas chambers. The Jews who were to be gassed were untruthfully informed that they were to be bathed and disinfected.7 Wirth developed his own ideas on the basis of the experience he had gained in the “Euthanasia” program. Thus, in Belzec he decided to supply the fixed gas chamber with gas produced by the internal-combustion engine of a motorcar. Wirth rejected Cyanide B which was later used at Auschwitz. This gas was produced by private firms and its extensive use in Belzec might have aroused suspicion and led to problems of supply. He therefore preferred a system of extermination based on ordinary, universally available gasoline and diesel fuel. At the end of February 1942 the installations for mass extermination were completed. The first two or three transports, each consisting of four to six freight cars fully loaded with a hundred or more Jews, were used for trial killings in order to test the capacity and efficiency of the gas chambers and the technique of the extermination process. The tests lasted several days. The last group to be killed consisted of the Jewish prisoners who had taken part in building the camp.8 Bottled carbon monoxide was used for these experiments. However, a short while later the gassings were carried out with carbon monoxide from the exhaust fumes of a motorcar engine. The engine from an armored vehicle (“250 h.p.”) was installed in a shed 7 StA Dortmund AZ: 45 Js 27-61 (AZ. ZSL: 208 AR-Z 251/59, vol. 9, pp. 1782). 8 See note 6 (vol. IX, pp. 1681ff). __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 7/30 School for Holocaust Studies outside the gas chamber, whence the gas was piped into the gas chamber. Wirth continued to experiment in his search for the most effective method of handling the transports of Jews, from their arrival at the camp to their extermination and the subsequent removal of the corpses. Everything was arranged in such a way that the victims should remain unaware of their impending doom. The intention was to convey to them the impression that they had arrived at a work or transit camp from which they would be sent on to another camp. In addition, everything was to proceed at top speed so that the victims would have no chance to grasp what was going on. Their reactions were to be paralyzed to prevent escape attempts or acts of resistance. The speedy process was to increase the camp’s extermination capacity. In this way, several transports could be received and liquidated on one and the same day. The entire camp covered a relatively small, flat, rectangular area. Its southern side measured 265 m., the other sides. 275 m. It was surrounded by a high wire fence, with barbed wire attached at the top and camouflaged with branches. Young trees were planted along the fence so that no one would be able to look into the camp from the outside. There were three watchtowers in the corners, two of them on the eastern perimeter and the third on the southwestern one. There was an additional watchtower in the center of the camp, near the gas chambers. A railroad track some 500 m. in length led from the Belzec railroad station into the camp through the gate on its northern side. The southern and eastern boundaries were lined with conifers. Belzec was divided into two areas. Camp I, in the northwest, was the reception and administrative sector; Camp II, in the eastern section, was the extermination sector. The reception sector comprised the railroad ramp, which had room for twenty freight cars, and two huts for the arrivals — one for undressing and the other for storing clothes and baggage. Camp II, the extermination sector, comprised the gas chambers and the mass graves which were located in the eastern and northeastern part. The gas chambers were surrounded by trees and a camouflage net was spread __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 8/30 School for Holocaust Studies over their roof to prevent observation from the air. There were also two huts in this sector for the Jewish prisoners working here: one served as their living quarters, the other as the kitchen. Camp II was completely separated from the other sector by a strictly guarded gate. A low path, 2 m. wide and 50-70 m. long, known as the “tube,” fenced in on both sides with barbed wire and partly partitioned off by a wooden fence, connected the hut in Camp I where the arrivals undressed with the gas chambers in Camp II. The living quarters of the SS-men were at a distance of ca. 500 m. from the camp, near the Belzec railroad station. All the SS-men were employed in the camp administration. Each SS-man had his specific job and some of them were assigned more than one task. From time to time there was an exchange in the spheres of responsibility.9 SS-Oberscharfuehrer Gottfried Schwarz was the Deputy Camp Commandant, SS-Oberscharfuehrer Niemann was in charge of the extermination sector of Camp II, and SS- Oberscharfuehrer Josef Oberhauser, Wirth’s adjutant, held responsibility for the construction of the camp. SS-Oberscharfuehrer Lorenz Hackenholt, together with two Ukrainians working under him, was responsible for the operation of the gas chambers. The Ukrainian unit numbered 60-80 men, divided into two groups. The Ukrainians served as security guards inside the camp, at the entrance gate, and on the four watchtowers; they also carried out several patrols. Some of them assisted in operating the gas chambers. Before the arrival of a transport, the Ukrainians were deployed as guards around the ramp, at the hut for undressing and along the “tube,” as far as the gas chambers. During the experimental killings they had to remove the corpses from the gas chambers and bury them. Later on, Jewish prisoners were forced to do this work. The Construction of the Sobibor Extermination Camp Sobibor, a village in a thinly populated region on the Chelm-Wlodawa railroad line, was chosen by the Central Building Administration (SSZentralbauverwaltung) in Lublin as a suitable locality for an additional 9 Ibid., vol. VII, pp. 1288, 1384; vol. VIII, p. 1465. __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 9/30 School for Holocaust Studies extermination camp.10 The camp extended westward from the Sobibor railroad station, along the railroad track, and was surrounded by a thin coniferous wood. Near the railroad station buildings a siding led into the camp where the deportation trains were unloaded. Originally there were two wooden houses in this locality, a former forester’s house and a two-storey post office. The total area of the camp measured 12 hectares, forming a 600 x 400 m. rectangle. Later on the area was enlarged. Construction of the camp began in March 1942 after the extermination operations in Belzec had already started. SS-Obersturmfuehrer Richard Thomalla, head of the Central Building Administration in Lublin, was in charge of its construction. The workers employed for this purpose were local people from the neighborhood. At the beginning of April 1942 the building operations slowed down. In order to speed up the work, Globocnik appointed SS-Obersturmfuehrer Franz Stangl as camp commandant. However, he first sent him to Belzec to gain experience in operating a camp.11 After Stangl assumed his post, the construction of the camp was accelerated. A group of Jews from the ghetto of the Lublin Bezirk was brought in for construction work. The first gas chambers in Sobibor were housed in a strong brick building with concrete foundations, in the northeastern part of the camp. Inside were three gas chambers; each measured 4 x 4 m. and could hold 150-200 people at a time. Each chamber had a separate entrance door leading off from a platform on the long side of the terrain. Opposite the entrance was another door through which the corpses were removed. As in Belzec, the exhaust fumes were conducted through pipes from a nearby shed into the gas chambers. Upon completion of the construction work, extermination tests were conducted in mid-April 1942. Wirth came to Sobibor in order to follow the of LG Hagen AZ: 11 Ks 1/64, p. 64 (AZ. ZSL: 208 AR-Z 251/59, vol. 14, p. 2835). 10 Verdict 11 Gitta Sereny, Into the Darkness, London, 1974 (hereafter — Sereny), pp. 109 f. The British the former ,writer and journalist, Gitta Sereny, had the opportunity to talk to Franz Stangl .commandant of the Treblinka extermination camp, while he was in custody __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 10/30 School for Holocaust Studies experiments. He was accompanied by a chemist whose pseudonym was Dr. Blaurock (or Blaubacke). SS-Unterscharfuehrer Erich Fuchs, who served in Belzec, described the preparations for the first gassing trials: On Wirth’s instructions I travelled by truck to Lvov and collected a gassing engine there, which I transported to Sobibor. In Sobibor… [we] unloaded the engine. It was a heavy Russian gasoline engine [probably a tank or train engine] with at least 200 h.p. [V-engine, 8 cylinders, water cooled]. We stood the engine on a concrete base and connected the exhaust to the pipe conduit. Then I tried out the engine. To begin with, it did not function. I managed to repair the ignition and the ventils so that the motor finally started. The chemist, whom I already knew from Belzec, entered the gas chamber with a measuring instrument in order to test the gas concentration. Next, an experimental gassing was carried out. I seem to recall that 30- 40 women were gassed in one chamber. The Jewesses had to undress on a covered piece of wooded ground near the gas chamber and were driven into the gas chamber by… members of the SS as well as by Ukrainian volunteers. When the women were locked into the gas chamber, I, together with Bauer, operated the engine. Initially the engine idled. We both stood next to the engine and switched from freeexhaust so that the gases were conducted into the chamber. At the suggestion of the chemist, I adjusted the engine to a certain number of revs per minute so that no more gas had to be supplied. After approximately 10 minutes all the women were dead. The chemist and the SS-Fuehrer gave the signal to switch off the motor. I packed up my tools and saw how the corpses were removed. Transport was by means of a rail-trolley which ran from the gas chamber to a distant area.12 After this experiment, which confirmed the smooth functioning of the gas chambers, and the completion of some other construction work, the Sobibor extermination camp was ready to operate. It was an improved version of Belzec. The camp was divided into three parts: an administration sector, a reception sector, and an extermination sector. The administration and reception sectors were near the railroad station, while the extermination sector was in a distant part of the camp, even more isolated than in Belzec. The administration area in the southeastern part was subdivided into two camps: the “Pre-Camp” (Vorlager) and Camp I. The Pre-Camp consisted of 12 StA Dortmund AZ: 45Js 27-61 (AZ. ZSL: 208 AR-Z 251/59, vol. 9, pp. 1784 f). __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 11/30 School for Holocaust Studies the entrance gate, the railroad ramp, and the living quarters of the SS-men, the Ukrainians, and their servants — in contrast to Belzec, here all the SSmen lived inside the camp. Camp I was the area set aside for the Jewish prisoners who worked in Sobibor. This is where their living quarters and workshops were located and where a few of them worked as shoemakers, tailors, blacksmiths, etc. The reception sector was called Camp II. After being unloaded, the new arrivals were chased into this area where the huts for undressing and the storage sheds for their valuables were situated. The former forester’s house, which was also in this area, served as camp offices and apartments for some of the SS-men. A high wooden fence separated the forester’s house from the reception sector. The “tube,” which connected Camp II with the extermination sector, began at the northernmost corner of this fence: it was a narrow path, 3-4 m. wide and 150 m. long, fenced in on both sides with barbed wire intertwined with branches. Along this path the victims were chased into the gas chambers which were located at the other end of the “tube “. Near the entrance to the “tube” were a cowshed, a pigsty, and a chicken pen. Halfway along the “tube” stood a hut known as the “hairdresser’s,” where the Jewish women had their hair cropped before entering the gas chambers. The extermination sector, designated as Camp III, was in the northwestern part. It comprised the gas chambers, the mass graves, and separate barracks for the Jewish prisoners working there and for the guards. The mass graves were 50-60 m. long, 10-15 m. wide, and 5-7 m. deep. The side walls of the ditches sloped in order to facilitate the unloading of the corpses. A narrow track for a trolley ran from the railroad station, past the gas chambers, to the ditches. People who had died in the trains or were too weak to walk from the ramp to the gas chamber were driven in this trolley. The extermination sector was surrounded on all sides by barbed wire with intertwined camouflage material. Watchtowers were located along the fence and in the corners of the camp. The staffing of the camp was settled simultaneously with the completion of its basic installations. Stangl’s deputy was SS-Oberscharfuehrer Herrmann __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 12/30 School for Holocaust Studies Michel, replaced a few months later by SS-Oberscharfuehrer Gustav Wagner. The Ukrainian company of guards in Sobibor was made up of three platoons. Erich Lachmann, a former police official who had trained the Ukrainians in Trawniki, was placed in charge of this unit. Being an outsider among the “Euthanasia” group, he was replaced by Kurt Bolender in the autumn of 1942. In Sobibor, as in Belzec, each member of the German personnel had a specific function. Upon the arrival of a transport most of the SS-men were given additional, specific tasks connected with the extermination procedure. SS-Oberscharfuehrer Erich Bauer later testified at his trial: Normally, every member of the permanent staff had a specific function within the camp (commandant of the Ukrainian volunteers, head of a work commando, responsibility for digging ditches, responsibility for laying barbed wire and the like). However, the arrival of a transport of Jews meant so much “work” that the usual occupations were stopped and every member of the permanent staff had to take some part in the routine extermination procedure. Above all, every member of the permanent staff was at some time brought into action in unloading the transports.13 At the end of April 1942 the Sobibor extermination camp was operational. The Construction of the Treblinka Extermination Camp Construction of Treblinka began after Belzec and Sobibor were in operation. The experience gained from the installation and the extermination procedures in those two camps was taken into consideration in the planning and building of Treblinka. Thus, it became the most “perfect” extermination camp of Operation Reinhard. The camp was situated in the northeastern part of the General Government, not far from Malkinia, a town with a railroad station on the main Warsaw- Bialystok line and close to the Malkinia-Siedlce line. The camp was erected in a sparsely populated region, 4 km. from the village of Treblinka and the railroad station. The site chosen for the camp was wooded and thus naturally concealed. Since the spring of 1941 a punishment camp had been located a few kilometers away, where Polish and Jewish 13 StA Dortmund AZ: 45 Js 27-61 (AZ. ZSL: 208 AR-Z 251/59, vol. 5, p. 988). __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 13/30 School for Holocaust Studies prisoners were made to process raw material from a gravel pit for frontier fortifications. At the end of April or the beginning of May 1942, an SS-unit decided on the location. The size and master plan of Treblinka were identical to those of Sobibor. The construction of the extermination camp began at the end of May or beginning of June 1942. Richard Thomalla was in charge; he had completed his construction job in Sobibor and had been relieved by Stangl in April 1942. In building the gas chambers he was assisted by SSUnterscharfuehrer Erwin Lambert, a chief-of-construction for technical matters from the “Euthanasia” program. The extermination sector was located in the southwest, in an area measuring 200 x 250 m., totally separated from the rest of the camp by barbed wire. As on the outside, branches were intertwined with the barbed wire to hide it from view. For the same reason, the entrances were placed behind a special partition. The gas chambers were housed in a massive brick building in the center. The access paths, including the “tube,” in Treblinka named “Street to Heaven” by the SS-men, were modelled on those in Belzec and Sobibor; the same applied to the “reception camp” and “accommodation camp”. During the first stage, three gas chambers were in operation, each of them, much like those in Sobibor, 4 x 4 m. in size and 2.6 m. high. A diesel engine producing poisonous carbon monoxide, as well as a generator which supplied the whole camp with electricity, were housed in a built-on room. The entrance doors of the gas chambers opened into a passage in front of the building; each door was 1.8 m. high and 90 cm. wide. They could be hermetically closed and bolted from the outside. Inside each gas chamber, opposite the entrance door, was a thick door made of wooden beams, 2.5 m. high and 1.g m. wide, which could also be hermetically closed. The walls in the gas chambers were covered with white tiles up to a certain height, shower heads had been installed, and water pipes ran along the ceiling — all this so as to maintain the “showers” fiction. In reality the pipes conducted the poisonous gas into the chambers. When the doors were shut, it was completely dark inside. To the east of the gas chambers were huge ditches into which the corpses __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 14/30 School for Holocaust Studies were thrown. They had been dug with an excavator from the gravel pit in Treblinka. Prisoners had to participate in this work. The ditches were 50 m. long, 25 m. wide, and 10 m. deep. A narrow-gauge track had been laid from the gas chambers to transport the corpses to the ditches. Prisoners had to push the trolleys. The main extermination installations were completed by mid-June 1942. The murder operations began on July 23, 1942, while the construction work continued for another few months. Belzec ~ from March 17 till June 1942 Organized mass extermination began with the deportation of the Jews of Lublin on March 17, 1942. This date marks the actual onset of Operation Reinhard. When the train entered Belzec station, its 40-60 freight cars were rearranged into several separate transports because the reception capacity inside the camp was 20 cars at the most. Only after a set of cars had been unloaded and sent back empty was another section of the transport driven into the camp. The accompanying security guards as well as the German and Polish railroad personnel were forbidden to enter the camp.14 The train was brought into the camp by a specially selected and reliable team of railroad workers. According to the concept of the extermination process, the procedure was as follows: The camp looked “peaceful.” The victims were unable to discern either graves, ditches or gas chambers. They were led to believe that they had arrived at a transit camp. An SS-man strengthened this belief by announcing that they were to undress and go to the baths in order to wash and be disinfected. They were also told that afterwards they would receive clean clothes and be sent on to a work camp. Separation of the sexes, undressing, and even the cropping of the women’s hair could not but reinforce the impression that they were on their way to the baths. First the men were led into the gas chambers, before they were able to 14 See note 6 (vol. VIl, pp. 1360ff). __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 15/30 School for Holocaust Studies guess what was going on; then it was the turn of the women and children.15 The gas chambers resembled baths. A group of young and strong Jews, a few dozen, occasionally even a hundred, was usually selected during the unloading of a transport. Most of them were taken to Camp II. They were forced to drag the corpses from the gas chambers and to carry them to the open ditches. Several prisoners were employed in collecting the victims’ clothes and belongings and carrying them to the sorting point. Others had to remove from the train those who had died during the transport and to take those unable to walk to the ditches in Camp II. These Jews were organized into work teams with their own Capos. They did this work for a few days or weeks. Each day some of them were killed and replaced by new arrivals. SS-man Karl Alfred Schluch, a former “Euthanasia” worker, who spent. sixteen months in Belzec from the very beginning, described what else happened to the transports inside the camp: The unloading of the freight cars was carried out by a Jewish work commando, headed by a Capo. Two to three members of the German camp personnel supervised it. It was one of my duties to supervise here. After the unloading, those Jews able to walk had to make their way to the assembly site. During the unloading the Jews were told that they had come for resettlement but that first they had to be bathed and disinfected. The address was given by Wirth, and also by his interpreter, a Jewish Capo. Immediately after this, the Jews were led to the undressing huts. In one hut the men had to undress and in the other the women and children. After they had stripped, the Jews, the men having been separated from the women and children, were led through the tube. I cannot recall with certainty who supervised the undressing huts… Since I was never on duty there I am unable to provide precise details about the stripping process. I just seem to remember that in the undressing hut some articles of clothing had to be left in one place, others in a different one, and in a third place valuables had to be handed over … My location in the tube was in the immediate vicinity of the undressing hut. Wirth had stationed me there because he thought me capable of having a calming effect on the Jews. After the Jews left the undressing hut I had to direct them to the gas chamber. I believe that I eased the way there for the Jews because they must have been convinced by my words or gestures that they really were going to be bathed. After the Jews had entered the gas chambers the doors were securely locked by Hackenholt himself or by the Ukrainians assigned to him. Thereupon .15 StA Munich I, AZ. 22 Js 68/61, pp. 2625f __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 16/30 School for Holocaust Studies Hackenholt started the engine with which the gassing was carried out. After 5-7 minutes — and I merely estimate this interval of time — someone looked through a peephole into the gas chamber to ascertain whether death had overtaken them all. Only then were the outside gates opened and the gas chambers aired. Who did the checking, that is to say, who looked through the peephole? I can no longer say with any certainty… In my view, probably everyone had occasion to look through the peephole . After the gas chambers had been aired, a Jewish work commando, headed by a Capo, arrived and removed the corpses. Occasionally, I also had to supervise in this place. I can therefore give an exact description of what happened, because I myself witnessed and experienced it all. The Jews had been very tightly squeezed into the gas chambers. For this reason the corpses did not lie on the floor but were caught this way and that, one bent forward, another one backward, one lay on his side, another kneeled, all depending on the space. At least some of the corpses were soiled with feces and urine, others partly with saliva. I could see that the lips and tips of the noses of some of the corpses had taken on a bluish tint. Some had their eyes closed, with others the eyes were turned up. The corpses were pulled out of the chambers and immediately examined by a dentist. The dentist removed rings and extracted gold teeth when there were any. He threw the objects of value obtained in this manner into a cardboard box which stood there. After this procedure the corpses were thrown into the large graves there.16 It is difficult to establish exactly how many of the gas chambers were in operation during the first three months of the mass extermination in Belzec. At times not all three gas chambers functioned because of technical problems or actual defects . Problems also arose with the burial of the victims. When a ditch was filled with corpses, it was covered with a thin layer of soil. As a result of the heat, the decomposition process, and sometimes also because water seeped into the ditches, the bodies swelled up and the thin layer of soil burst open . Those no longer able to walk were led directly to the ditch where they were shot. Robert Juehrs, an SS-man who started his service in Belzec in the summer of 1942, described how such shootings were conducted: At the beginning of the autumn of 1942, upon the arrival of a largish transport, I was assigned to the unloading site . On this transport the freight cars had been seriously overcrowded, and 16 See note 6 (vol. VIII, p. 151).1 __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 17/30 School for Holocaust Studies many Jews were unable to walk. It is possible that in the confusion a number of Jews had been pushed onto the floor and trampled on. In any case, there were Jews who could not possibly have walked via the undressing huts. As usual, Hering also turned up here for the unloading. He ordered me to shoot these Jews … The Jews in question were taken to the gate by the Jewish work commando and from there conveyed to the ditch by other working Jews. As I recall, there were seven Jews, both men and women, who were laid inside the ditch . At this point I should like to stress that the victims concerned were those persons who had suffered most severely from the transport. I would say that they were more dead than alive. It is hard to describe the condition of these people after the long journey in the indescribably overcrowded freight cars. I looked upon killing these people in that manner as a kindness and a release.17 The first large Jewish community taken to Belzec for extermination came from Lublin. Within four weeks, from March 17 to April 14, close to 30,000 of the 37,000 inhabitants of the ghetto were deported to Belzec. Within the same period of time an additional 18,000-20,000 Jews from the Lublin Bezirk were sent to Belzec. The first Jewish transport from the Lvov Bezirk came from Zolkiew, a town 50 km. southwest of Belzec. This transport consisted of approximately 700 Jews and reached Belzec on March 25 or 26, 1942. Subsequently, within the two weeks up to April 6, 1942, some 30,000 other Jews from the Lvov Bezirk arrived in Belzec. After 80,000 Jews had been murdered in a major operation, which lasted about four weeks, the transports were discontinued. Toward the end of April or the beginning of May 1942, Wirth and his SS-men left the camp . At the beginning of May 1942 SS-Oberfuehrer Brack from Berlin visited Globocnik in Lublin. Globocnik requested the return of Wirth and his staff, and also asked for additional personnel from the ” Euthanasia ” program. In mid-May 1942 Wirth returned to Belzec. Until the end of June more transports arrived from the Lublin and Krakow districts with about 22,000 Jews . With the onset of the deportations from the Bezirks of Cracow, Lvov, and Lublin, Wirth realized that the wooden gas chambers could not cope with the 17 See note 6 (vol. Vlll, pp. 1483 f). __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 18/30 School for Holocaust Studies arrival of the increasing number of victims. Deportations to Belzec therefore ceased in mid-June 1942, while new gas chambers were being built there. This concluded the first period of the operation in Belzec. Sobibor — from May to July 1942 The extermination installations in Sobibor had been tested in April 1942, and mass exterminations began during the first days of May. Commandant Stangl introduced into his camp the extermination techniques employed in Belzec. He received additional advice and guidance when Wirth visited Sobibor.18 Ada Lichtmann, a survivor from Sobibor, reported how the arrivals were “greeted”: We heard word for word how SS-Oberscharfuehrer Michel, standing on a small table, convincingly calmed the people; he promised them that after the bath they would get back all their possessions, and said that the time had come for Jews to become productive members of society. They would presently all be sent to the Ukraine where they would be able to live and work. The speech inspired confidence and enthusiasm among the people. They applauded spontaneously and occasionally they even danced and sang.19 Older people, the sick and invalids, and those unable to walk were told that they would enter an infirmary for medical treatment. In reality, they were taken on carts, pulled by men or horses, into Camp II, straight to the open ditches where they were shot.20 During the first weeks the arrivals had to undress in the open square in Camp II. Later, a hut was erected for this purpose.21 There were signs pointing toward the “Cash Office” and the “Baths.” At the “Cash Office” the Jews had to deposit their money and valuables. It was located in the former forester’s house, on the route along which the naked people had to walk on their way to the “tube” and the gas chambers. The victims handed over their money and valuables through the window of this room. They had been warned that those trying to hide something would be shot. When time permitted, the Jews were .18 Sereny, pp. 110, 113 .19 Yad Vashem Archives 0-3/1291, p. 18 Js 27/61 (AZ. ZSL: 208 AR-Z 251/59, vol. 7, pp. 1282, 1308, 1433).45 :20 StA Dortmund AZ 21 See plan of Sobibor in the appendix. __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 19/30 School for Holocaust Studies given numbers as receipts for the items handed over, so as to lull them into a sense of security that afterwards everything would be returned to them.22 Transports which arrived in the evening or at night were unloaded and kept under guard in Camp II until the morning when the people were taken to the undressing huts and then led into the gas chambers.23 Extermination operations did not normally take place at night. Frequently, the entire procedure, from the unloading to entry into the gas chambers, was accompanied by beatings and other acts of cruelty on the part of the Germans and the Ukrainians. There was a dog called Barry whom the SS-men had trained to bite Jews upon being called to do so, especially when they were naked. The beatings, Barry’s bites, and the shouting and screaming by the guards made the Jews run through the “tube” and of their own accord push on into the “baths” — in the hope of escaping from the hell around them . Occasionally, a restricted number of skilled workers were selected from some transports. These included carpenters, tailors, and shoemakers, as well as a few dozen strong young men and women. They had to do all the physical work. For months on end, the extermination machinery in Sobibor operated smoothly and uninterruptedly. It should be recalled that fewer transports came to Sobibor than to Belzec, and generally with fewer deportees per train. Usually only one deportation train arrived each day; there were also days without a transport. The size of a transport rarely exceeded 20 freight cars, conveying 2,000-2,500 persons. Stangl, the leading figure, supervised operations. His personality and experience of many years as a police officer in the “Euthanasia” program made him a very suitable camp commandant. The first phase of operations in Sobibor lasted from May until the end of July 1942. During this period the Jews from the ghettoes of Lublin district were taken there. Among these were also Czech and Austrian Jews who had first been deported to these Polish ghettoes. Altogether, 61,330 Jews from Bezirk Lublin were taken to Sobibor. Simultaneously, transports arrived with 10,000 22 Verdict of LG Hagen AZ: 11 Ks 1/64 , p. 243 (ZSL: misc. file 209). .23 Yad Vashem Archives M-2/236, p. 2 __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 20/30 School for Holocaust Studies Jews from Austria, 6,000 from the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, and part of the 24,378 Slovak Jews who were murdered in this camp by the end of 1942. The first wave of extermination in Sobibor lasted three months, claiming at least 77,000 Jewish victims, excluding those deported from Slovakia. At the end of July 1942 the large deportations to Sobibor were halted due to repair work on the railway line between Lublin and Chelm. At the beginning of August several transports reached the camp from the ghettoes in the neighborhood; they traveled along the eastern sector of the line which was again open to traffic. Treblinika – from July 23 until August 28, 1942 The procedure adopted upon the arrival of the trains was the same as that in Sobibor: two German railroad workers, classified as being reliable, took over the transport from the Treblinka station to the extermination camp, a distance of 4 km. The Pole Franciszek Zabecki described the arrival of the deportation train from the Warsaw ghetto: A small locomotive stood ready in the railroad station to transport the first section of freight cars into the camp. Everything had been planned and prepared in advance. The train consisted of 60 closed freight cars, fully loaded with people: young ones, old ones, men and women, children and babies. The car doors were locked from the outside and the air holes covered with barbed wire. On the running boards on both sides and on the roof about a dozen SS-soldiers stood or lay with machine guns at the ready. It was hot and most of the people in the freight cars were deadly exhausted… As the train came nearer it seemed as if an evil spirit had taken hold of the waiting SS-men. They drew their pistols, returned them to their holsters, pulled them out again, as if they wanted to shoot and kill. They approached the freight cars and tried to reduce the noise and the weeping; but then they screamed at the Jews and cursed them, all the while urging the railroad workers to hurry: “Quick, faster!” After that they returned to the camp in order to receive the deportees.24 As the train approached the extermination camp, the engine blew a prolonged whistle which was the signal for the Ukrainians to man their position in the reception sector and on the roofs of the buildings. One group of SS-men 24 Franciszek Zabecki, Wspomnienia dawne i nowe, Warsaw, 1977, pp. 39 f __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 21/30 School for Holocaust Studies and Ukrainians took up positions on the station platform. As soon as the train was moving along the tracks inside the camp, the gates behind it were closed. The deportees were taken out of the freight cars and conducted through a gate to a fenced-in square inside the camp. At the gate they were separated: men to the right, women and children to the left. A large placard announced in Polish and German: Attention Warsaw Jews ! You are in a transit camp from which the transport will continue to labor camps. To prevent epidemics, clothing as well as pieces of baggage are to be handed over for disinfection . Gold, money, foreign currency, and jewellery are to be deposited at the “Cash Office” against a receipt. They will be returned later on presentation of the receipt. For physical cleanliness, all arrivals must have a bath before traveling on.25 The undressing procedure and the manner in which the victims were led to the gas chambers were almost identical to those described for the Sobibor camp. During this first phase, from the beginning to the middle of August, 5,000- 7,000 Jews arrived every day in Treblinka. Then the pace of the transports increased; there were days on which 10,000-12,000 deportees reached the camp, together with thousands who were already dead and others who were utterly exhausted. Abraham Goldfarb, who arrived there on August 25, described the scene: When we arrived in Treblinka and the Germans opened the freight cars we beheld a horrible sight. The car was full of corpses. The bodies were partly decomposed by chlorine. The stench in the cars made those still alive choke. The Germans ordered everyone to get out; those still able to do so were half dead. Waiting SS and Ukrainians beat us and shot at us… On the way to the gas chambers Germans with dogs stood along the fence on both sides. The dogs had been trained to attack people; they bit the men’s genitals and the women’s breasts, ripping off pieces of flesh. The Germans hit the people with whips and iron bars to spur them on so that they pressed forward into the “showers” as quickly as .25 Verdict of LG Dueisseldorf AZ 8 1 Ks 2/64, p. 81 __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 22/30 School for Holocaust Studies possible. The screams of the women could be heard far away, even in the other parts of the camp. The Germans drove the running victims on with shouts of: “Faster, faster, the water will get cold, others still have to go under the showers!” To escape from the blows, the victims ran to the gas chambers as quickly as they could, the stronger ones pushing the weaker aside. At the entrance to the gas chambers stood the two Ukrainians, Ivan Demaniuk and Nikolai, one of them armed with an iron bar, the other with a sword. They drove the people inside with blows… As soon as the gas chambers were full, the Ukrainians closed the doors and started the engine. Some 20-25 minutes later an SS-man or a Ukrainian looked through a window in the door. When they had ascertained that everyone had been asphyxiated, the Jewish prisoners had to open the doors and remove the corpses. Since the chambers were overcrowded and the victims held on to one another, they all stood upright and were like one single block of flesh.26 Breakdowns and interruptions occurred in the operation of the gas chambers. During the initial phase the personnel did not know how long it would take to asphyxiate the victims. On occasion the doors were opened too early and the victims were still alive, so that the doors had to be closed again. The engines which produced the gas occasionally failed. If such mishaps occurred when the victims were already inside the gas chambers, they were left standing there until the engines had been repaired. Some 268,000 Jews met their deaths in the first extermination wave in Treblinka, which lasted five weeks — from July 23 to August 28. The gas chambers with their technical breakdowns were unable to cope with such enormous numbers. Those who could not be pressed inside were shot in the reception camp. Many prisoners and additional ditches were needed in order to bury all those who had been shot, in addition to the thousands who had died during the transports. An excavator from the gravel pit in the nearby Treblinka punishment camp was used for digging additional mass graves . But this did not solve the problem and at the end of August chaos still reigned in Treblinka. Reports of what went on in the camp reached headquarters. Globocnik and Wirth arrived, assessed the situation, and dismissed Eberl, the camp commandant. Stangl, from Sobibor, who was without work because of repairs on the tracks, was appointed commandant of Treblinka. .26 Yad Vashem Archives 0-3/2140 __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 23/30 School for Holocaust Studies The Construction of Larger Gas Chambers The first period of operation in Belzec and Sobibor lasted about three months, in Treblinka five weeks. After this initial phase, those holding key positions in Operation Reinhard decided to introduce “improvements” into the camps so as to increase their extermination capacity. This decision was brought on by Himmler’s order of July 19, 1942 that all the Jews in the General Government, with a few exceptions, were to be eradicated by the end of that year. The main problem was finding a way to speed up the extermination procedure, i.e., increasing the absorption capacity of the gas chambers. Belzec was the first camp in which large gas chambers were built. The old wooden structure containing the three gas chambers was demolished, and on the same spot a larger, strong building was erected, which was 24 m. long and 10 m. wide. It contained six gas chambers. Statements differ as to their size; they fluctuate between 4 x 4 m. and 4 x 8 m. The new gas chambers were completed in mid-July.27 Rudolf Reder was the only one to have survived the Belzec extermination camp. He described the new gas chambers: The building was low, long, and broad. It was built of grey concrete and had a flat roof made of roofing felt, with a net over it which was covered with branches. Three steps without banisters led into the building. They were 1 m wide. In front of the building stood a large flowerpot with colorful flowers and a clearly written placard: “Bath and Inhalation Rooms.” The steps led into a dark, empty corridor which was very long, but only 1.5 m. wide. To the left and right of it were the doors to the gas chambers. They were wooden doors, 1 m. wide… The corridor and the chambers were lower than normal rooms, no higher than 2 m. In the opposite wall of every chamber was a removable door through which the bodies of the gassed were thrown out. Outside the building was a 2 x 2 m. shed which housed the gas machine. The chambers were 1.5 m. above the ground…28 These new gas chambers were able to take in 1,500 persons at one and the 27 StA Munich I, AZ: 22Js 68/61, pp. 2602, 2613. .28 Rudolf Reder, Belzec , Cracow, 1946, pp. 42 ff __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 24/30 School for Holocaust Studies same time, i.e., a transport of about 15 freight cars.29After he had completed the rebuilding of the Belzec gas chambers, Christian Wirth was appointed inspector of all three extermination camps. He was replaced in Belzec by SSHauptsturmfuehrer Gottlieb Hering. Wirth’s new headquarters was now in Lublin. The most urgent need for an increase in the absorption capacity was felt in Treblinka already in the first months of operation, because the small gas chambers there constantly led to chaos in the extermination process. Newly appointed Commandant Stangl therefore ordered the construction of a new building next to the old one. At the same time, the old gas chambers continued to function. Within the framework of this reorganization, he also put an end to the chaotic conditions that had prevailed when the deportees arrived, and he introduced soothing means of deception. Wirth, in his role as Inspector of the Extermination Camps, sent SSUnterscharfuehrer Erwin Lambert and Scharfuehrer Lorenz Hackenholt, who was responsible for the gas chambers in Belzec, to Treblinka to assist in the construction of the new gas chambers. The new building comprised 10 gas chambers. In place of the three old ones which together measured 48 sq.m., the area now covered was 320 sq.m. The new rooms were 2 m. high, i.e, 60 cm. lower than the old ones. A low ceiling reduced the volume of the room and hence also the amount of gas needed for killing the victims. In addition, it shortened the asphyxiation time. The new building was rectangular. A dark curtain from a synagogue hung at the entrance to the passage. It had written on it in Hebrew: “This is the gate, through which the righteous may enter”. The pediment above the entrance door bore a Shield of David. Five steps led up to it, both sides of which were decorated with pot plants. The new building, with its idyllic flight of stairs, plants and curtain, stood at the end of the “tube.” The victims who had been chased through the “tube,” ran up the stairs to the entrance and into the passage. The engine producing the gas was located at the end of the building, near the old gas chambers. In order to speed up the construction, a group of Jewish masons was brought .29 Verdict of LG Munich I, AZ: 110 Ks 3/64, p. 10 __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 25/30 School for Holocaust Studies from Warsaw. They had been selected from a transport intended for the beginning of September 1942. A total of 40 Jewish prisoners worked on the gas chambers. Jankiel Wiernik described their feelings: The construction of the new building took five weeks. To us it seemed like eternity. The work continued from sunrise to sunset, accompanied by lashes from whips and blows from rifle butts. Woronikow, one of the guards, beat and ill-treated us mercilessly. Every day several workers were murdered. The extent of our physical fatigue was beyond human imagination, but our mental agony was still greater. New transports arrived daily; the deportees were ordered to undress, then they were taken to the three old gas chambers. They were led past the building site. Several of us recognized our children, wives or relatives among the victims. If, in his agony, someone ran to his family, he was shot on the spot. Thus we built the death chambers for ourselves and for our brothers!30 The new gas chambers were able to accommodate 4,000 persons at a time, the old ones only 600. Sobibor was the last camp to be provided with larger gas chambers. This construction program was carried out in September 1942 under the supervision of SS-Unterscharfuehrer Erwin Lambert, who had erected the new gas chambers in Treblinka, and SS-Scharfuehrer Lorenz Hackenholt, who was in charge of the gas chambers in Belzec. They had both been posted to Sobibor by Christian Wirth. The new building had six gas chambers, three rooms on each side. Its layout was similar to that in Belzec and Treblinka, where the entrances to the gas chambers branched off from a central passage. The new rooms here were not larger than the old ones, i.e., 4 x 4 m., but the extermination capacity was increased to 1,200-1,300 persons. Another important technical change in Sobibor was a narrow-gauge minetrack which ran from the railroad platform to the mass graves in Camp III. It was to replace the trolleys pulled by prisoners or horses, which had transported the dead, the sick, and the invalids from the train to the ditches. According to Oberscharfuehrer Hubert Gomerski, who was responsible for 30 Jankiel Wiernik, Rok w Treblince, Warsaw, 1944. __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 26/30 School for Holocaust Studies Camp III, the narrow-gauge track was about 300-400 m. long. It had 5 or 6 wagons and a small diesel locomotive.31 The Attempt to Remove Traces Hundreds of thousands of corpses of people murdered in the death camps during the spring and summer of 1942 lay in huge mass graves. In the autumn of 1942 the camp commandants of Sobibor and Belzec decided to incinerate the corpses; in Treblinka, a start on this was made only in 1943. However, the idea to remove all signs of the crimes was not new. In the spring of 1942 Himmler had decided that in the occupied territories of the Soviet Union, the corpses of the murdered Jews and Russian prisoners of war were to be exhumed from the graves and incinerated without leaving any traces. The same was to be done with the past and future victims of the extermination camps. In June 1942 SS-Gruppenfuehrer Mueller, Chief of the Gestapo, charged SSStandartenfuehrer Blobel with removing all traces of the mass executions in the East carried out by the Einsatzgruppen. This order was a “State Secret” and Blobel was instructed to refrain from any written correspondence on the subject. The operation was given the code name “Sonderaktion 1005 “. Upon his appointment, Blobel, together with a small staff of three or four men, initiated experiments involving the incineration of corpses. The place chosen for them was Kulmhof. For this purpose the ditches were opened and the corpses burnt by means of incendiary bombs, but this led to big fires in the surrounding forests. Subsequently an attempt was made to burn the corpses together with wood on open fires. This method came to be adopted in all the camps of Operation Reinhard. The corpses were carried to the open fires straight from the gas chambers. At the same time, the existing mass graves were opened and those buried there were also incinerated. This cover-up operation was initially introduced in Sobibor. In Belzec, the incineration of corpses began in November 1942, toward the end of the mass murder. SS-Scharfuehrer Heinrich Gley testified: 31 StA Dortmund AZ: 45 Js 27/61 (AZ. ZSL: 208 AR-Z 251/59, vol. 7, p. 1308). __________________________________________________________________________ Shoah Resource Center, The International 27/30 School for Holocaust Studies Then began the general exhumation and burning of corpses; it may have taken from November 1942 to March 1943. The incinerations went on day and night, without interruption, initially at one, then at two sites. At one of the sites it was possible to incinerate about 2,000 corpses within 24 hours. Approximately four weeks after the start of the incineration operation, the second site was set up. Thus, on an average, a total
  4. paolosilv Says:

    (History repeated itself)

    “But when the disgraceful collapse set in and the most humiliating kind
    of capitulation was made, indignation against such a betrayal of our
    unhappy country broke out into a blaze. Millions of German money had
    been spent in vain and thousands of young Germans had been sacrificed,
    who were foolish enough to trust in the promises made by the rulers of
    the REICH. Millions of people now became clearly convinced that Germany
    could be saved only if the whole prevailing system were destroyed root
    and branch.

    ” There never had been a more propitious moment for such a solution. On the one side an act of high treason had been committed against the
    country, openly and shamelessly. ”
    AH on Germany after WWI, Mein Kampf.

    Posted because it’s ironic, the same could be said of his “Third Reich” after the collapse/defeat.

  5. paolosilv Says:

    Nazis’ plans for the Slavic East:

    source: axishistory.com/forum

    “[…]The policy of annihilation by hunger approved by Hitler was directed against two population groups: on the one hand against the people in the “forest zone” of central and northern Russia and Belorussia, on the other against the urban population of the Soviet Union in general. It is true that this plan, which in June 1941 was even checked and in principle approved by the Macroeconomic Department of the German Reichsbank, contained some basic flaws overlooked by its authors. For instance the surplus and deficit regions in the Soviet Union were by no means clearly separated, and especially Ukraine was not the most important surplus region, for it promised only relatively little “surpluses” even if the population’s food consumption was forcibly reduced. Thus the Macroeconomic Department of IG Farben had to conclude on 26 November 1941 that, “under the assumption of normal nourishment”, the territories conquered so far were “all together deficit regions in regard to bread grain”, which theoretically would have required supplies from the Volga-Urals region. The main flaw, however, was that no one seems to have thought how the starvation was to occur in an area which at least partially contained German troops.
    Nevertheless the intention of letting millions of people in the occupied Soviet territories starve or otherwise perish became the guideline for many decision-makers. In this respect the ominous number of 30 million – by which [State Secretary at the Ministry of Food and Agriculture] Backe considered that the population would have to be reduced – played a part.[my emphasis] The fact that many corresponding statements were made by acting figurers from the areas of Belorussia and “Central Russia” is no coincidence, but likely to be related to the fact that these regions were part of the “forest zone”.
    Thus the Reichsführer-SS and Head of the German Police, Heinrich Himmler, “at the beginning of 1941, before the start of the campaign against Russia, held [a speech] on the Wewelsburg, in which he stated that the purpose of the Russian campaign was the decimation of the Slav population by thirty million”, as the former Head of SS and Police von dem Bach-Zelewski testified in 1946 at Nuremberg. Written orders for this annihilation of Slavs had not existed. At the speech twelve Gruppenführer (higher SS officers) were said to have been present. In fact the mentioned conference of the SS-Gruppenführer on the Wewelsburg with Himmler took place only between 12 and 15 June. According to a later deposition of the Head of the Personal Staff Reichsführer-SS, Karl Wolff, what Himmler had said on the Wewelsburg was that the death of these millions of people was not the goal, but would be the consequence of the war against the USSR. To this Bach-Zelewski, at the criminal trial against Wolff, added that Himmler had back then predicted that military actions and crises of food supply would lead to this high number of victims.[my emphasis] Himmler’s announcement, however, came very late and was very vague, just like the food planners’ project left many things open. Coincidence or not, two days before the meeting on the Wewelsburg Himmler had talked with Backe about the agriculture of the Soviet regions to be occupied.
    All by themselves Bach-Zelewski’s utterances might be explained as a mere attempt to relieve himself, as he was invoking a higher order. They are supported, however, by a deposition that the former Head of SS and Police for the Eastern Territories, Friedrich Jeckeln, made shortly before in January 1946 at Riga:
    “Herf [Eberhard Herf, commander of the Order Police Minsk from about January to March 1942 and August 1943 to January 1944, Head of the Staff of the Anti-partisan Units Reichsführer SS (Bach-Zelewski) for one month in July/August 1943] told me that von dem Bach-Zelewski had told him that he – von dem Bach – had been given by Himmler the order to destroy 20 million Soviet citizens on the territory of Belorussia and other regions east of Belorussia, immediately upon the heels of the advancing German Army.”
    In this respect it must be taken into account that Bach-Zelewski’s territorial area of action was to be “Central Russia” with head-office in Moscow. He himself even wrote once that it was to lie principally to the east of Moscow up to the Urals. A great part of the so-called forest zone would thus have fallen under his jurisdiction, which could explain why he was given the task to destroy so large a part of those 30 million people, a fact that he “forgot” at Nuremberg. The inferno foreseen for Central Russia was to be to terrible that even Erich Koch, one of the most brutal NS politicians, rejected the place of Reich Commissar in Moscow with the justification that this was “a wholly negative activity”.[my emphasis]
    In his memoirs the former counterespionage officer of Army Group Center, Rudolf-Christoph Freiherr von Gersdorff, wrote about a visit by the head of the Advance Detachment Moscow of Einsatzgruppe B, Professor Franz Six, who shortly after the moving of the staff quarters to Borissow, i.e. presumably in July 1941, told him about the plan:
    “He reported that Hitler had the intention to push the eastern border of the Reich up to the line Baku-Stalingrad-Moscow. To the east of this line there would be created a ‘fire strip’ in the area of which all life was to be wiped out. It was intended to decimate the about thirty million Russians living in this area by hunger through the removal or all food from this gigantic area. All taking part in this action would be forbidden under punishment of death to even give a piece of bread to a Russian. The big cities from Leningrad to Moscow were to be leveled to the ground; Head of SS von dem Bach-Zelewski would be responsible for the execution of these measures.[my emphasis][…]
    A slightly different version of the same event is given by Wilfried Strik-Strikfeldt. According hereto “a special envoy of Rosenberg’s Eastern Ministry, in the company of a high-ranking party officials, visited the Army Group at Borissow.” As recalled by the Supreme Commander of Army Group Center, General Field Marshal Fedor von Bock, they had spoken with Bock at the meal about the colonization of Russia until possibly east of Moscow. A quintessence in this respect had been the following: “Forty million Russians too many! They must ‘perish’!” This meant starving to death. Asked about this by him, Strik, Rosenberg had answered that these were “fantasies” of the SS and some others without significance. Von Bock is supposed to have refused to believe what he heard. Yet the General Field Marshal had met Himmler already on 5 June 1941 and been informed by him that the “goal of the campaign in the East was the splitting of Russia into small single states and the extension of the German sphere of interest far beyond the Urals.” On 6 July he noted the following: “The region is a hunger region. Its products will hardly be sufficient […], so that I don’t know how one is to solve the problem of feeding the population.” Thus von Bock was by no means that much a stranger to these thoughts. When Himmler visited him on 24 October in Smolensk, he – at least according to Bach-Zelewski’s testimony – thanked him for the murder of the Jews, this “dirty work” which he thus would not have to do himself.
    Back to Six. The considerations exposed by him are obviously based on the Backe Plan and also show notable coincidence with Jeckeln’s deposition. In what concerns the execution his vision remained naïve and unclear, like in the “Guidelines of Economic Policy”. Fortunately the project could not be put into practice that easily.
    The Hunger Plan also appeared on other occasions. For Göring it was a favorite subject. In November 1941 he told the Italian foreign minister Count Ciano that within a year 20 to 30 million people would starve to death in Russia. Maybe this was a good thing, for certain peoples needed to be reduced.[my emphasis] Hitler spoke of a “population catastrophe” of the “Muscovites” and declared that due to lack or destruction of food “millions would have to die”. According to Goebbels, the German leadership declared “publicly that Russia has nothing to expect from us and that we will let it starve to death.”[my emphasis] The General Plenipotentiary for Labor Employment, Fritz Sauckel, stated on 4 August 1942, during a visit in the occupied Soviet territories, that when he had been there in the autumn of 1941 “all German authorities had persisted in the conviction that in the following, i.e. in the past winter, at least ten to twenty million of these people would simply starve to death.” At least some occupation authorities on site thus stuck to the guidelines as they were repeatedly stated similar to this: “We cannot feed the whole land. The intelligence has been killed, the commissars are gone. Huge areas will be left to themselves (starve to death).” Also the Eastern Minister Rosenberg repeatedly stated that the starvation death of millions was “a harsh necessity that stands outside any sentiment.”[my emphasis] Hans Tesmer, head of the Department War Administration at the Commander of the rear area of Army Group Center (1941-1942) and of Army Group Center (1942-1944) disapprovingly remembered the following: “Slogans came up that in Russia several million might well starve to death, that the Russians were to be kept dumb and other similar views of this sort.”[…]

  6. paolosilv Says:

    http://www.hitler.org/writings­/programme/

    The Programme of the German Workers’ Party is designed to be of limited duration. The leaders have no intention, once the aims announced in it have been achieved, of establishing fresh ones, merely in order to increase, artificially, the discontent of the masses and so ensure the continued existence of the Party.
    1. We demand the union of all Germany in a Greater Germany on the basis of the right of national self-determination.

    2. We demand equality of rights for the German people in its dealings with other nations, and the revocation of the peace treaties of Versailles and Saint-Germain.

    3. We demand land and territory (colonies) to feed our people and to settle our surplus population.

    4. Only members of the nation may be citizens of the State. Only those of German blood, whatever be their creed, may be members of the nation. Accordingly, no Jew may be a member of the nation.

    5. Non-citizens may live in Germany only as guests and must be subject to laws for aliens.

    6. The right to vote on the State’s government and legislation shall be enjoyed by the citizens of the State alone. We demand therefore that all official appointments, of whatever kind, whether in the Reich, in the states or in the smaller localities, shall be held by none but citizens.

    We oppose the corrupting parliamentary custom of filling posts merely in accordance with party considerations, and without reference to character or abilities.

    7. We demand that the State shall make it its primary duty to provide a livelihood for its citizens. If it should prove impossible to feed the entire population, foreign nationals (non-citizens) must be deported from the Reich.

    8. All non-German immigration must be prevented. We demand that all non-Germans who entered Germany after 2 August 1914 shall be required to leave the Reich forthwith.

    9. All citizens shall have equal rights and duties.

    10. It must be the first duty of every citizen to perform physical or mental work. The activities of the individual must not clash with the general interest, but must proceed within the framework of the community and be for the general good.

    We demand therefore:

    11. The abolition of incomes unearned by work.

    The breaking of the slavery of interest

    12. In view of the enormous sacrifices of life and property demanded of a nation by any war, personal enrichment from war must be regarded as a crime against the nation. We demand therefore the ruthless confiscation of all war profits.
    13. We demand the nationalization of all businesses which have been formed into corporations (trusts).

    14. We demand profit-sharing in large industrial enterprises.

    15. We demand the extensive development of insurance for old age.

    16. We demand the creation and maintenance of a healthy middle class, the immediate communalizing of big department stores, and their lease at a cheap rate to small traders, and that the utmost consideration shall be shown to all small traders in the placing of State and municiple orders.

    17. We demand a land reform suitable to our national requirements, the passing of a law for the expropriation of land for communal purposes without compensation; the abolition of ground rent, and the prohibition of all speculation in land. *

    18. We demand the ruthless prosecution of those whose activities are injurious to the common interest. Common criminals, usurers, profiteers, etc., must be punished with death, whatever their creed or race.

    19. We demand that Roman Law, which serves a materialistic world order, be replaced by a German common law.

    20. The State must consider a thorough reconstruction of our national system of education (with the aim of opening up to every able and hard-working German the possibility of higher education and of thus obtaining advancement). The curricula of all educational establishments must be brought into line with the requirements of practical life. The aim of the school must be to give the pupil, beginning with the first sign of intelligence, a grasp of the nation of the State (through the study of civic affairs). We demand the education of gifted children of poor parents, whatever their class or occupation, at the expense of the State.

    21. The State must ensure that the nation’s health standards are raised by protecting mothers and infants, by prohibiting child labor, by promoting physical strength through legislation providing for compulsory gymnastics and sports, and by the extensive support of clubs engaged in the physical training of youth.

    22. We demand the abolition of the mercenary army and the foundation of a people’s army.

    23. We demand legal warfare on deliberate political mendacity and its dissemination in the press. To facilitate the creation of a German national press we demand:

    (a) that all editors of, and contributors to newspapers appearing in the German language must be members of the nation;
    (b) that no non-German newspapers may appear without the express permission of the State. They must not be printed in the German language;
    (c) that non-Germans shall be prohibited by law from participating financially in or influencing German newspapers, and that the penalty for contravening such a law shall be the suppression of any such newspaper, and the immediate deportation of the non-Germans involved.
    The publishing of papers which are not conducive to the national welfare must be forbidden. We demand the legal prosecution of all those tendencies in art and literature which corrupt our national life, and the suppression of cultural events which violate this demand.

    24. We demand freedom for all religious denominations in the State, provided they do not threaten its existence not offend the moral feelings of the German race.

    The Party, as such, stands for positive Christianity, but does not commit itself to any particular denomination. It combats the Jewish-materialistic spirit within and without us, and is convinced that our nation can achieve permanent health only from within on the basis of the principle: The common interest before self-interest.

    25. To put the whole of this programme into effect, we demand the creation of a strong central state power for the Reich; the unconditional authority of the political central Parliament over the entire Reich and its organizations; and the formation of Corporations based on estate and occupation for the purpose of carrying out the general legislation passed by the Reich in the various German states.

    The leaders of the Party promise to work ruthlessly — if need be to sacrifice their very lives — to translate this programme into action.

    * On April 13, 1928, Adolf Hitler clarified section seventeen in the programme in order to stop political mischaracterizations: “Because of the mendacious interpretations on the part of our opponents of Point 17 of the programme of the NSDAP, the following explanation is necessary.: Since the NSDAP is fundamentally based on the principle of private property, it is obvious that the expression “confiscation without compensation” refers merely to the creation of possible legal means of confiscating when necessary, land illegally acquired, or not administered in accordance with the national welfare. It is therefore directed in the first instance against the Jewish companies which speculate in land.

    ——————————————————————————–

    Copyright © 1996-2005 – Hitler Historical Museum – All Rights Reserved

  7. paolosilv Says:

    Majdanek Report, Soviet-Polish Commission

    http://www.jewishgen.org/ForgottenCamps/Camps/MajdanekReport.html

    The Nazis murdered at least 18,400 Jews in one day on 3 Nov 1943.

    The Nazis used zyklon b at this camp by the admission of the perpetrators and doctors themselves. Case closed.

    The question is , how many died for real at Majdanek and its subcamps? So far, they are only sure that 130,000 people died at these camps, but at the time it was liberated, it was believed that over 300,000 had been killed at this camp-system.

  8. paolosilv Says:

    This figure was again revised, according to the guidebook, when it was learned that no more than 300,000 people had ever been sent to the camp. The actual death toll, according to the guidebook, was 235,000. This approximate figure was based on the number of arrivals minus the number of prisoners who escaped, were transferred or released. Approximately 45,000 were transferred to other camps, 20,000 were released and 500 escaped, according to Polish historians. There were six sub-camps surrounding the Majdanek camp, to which some of the prisoners were transferred.

    Other estimates from books that I have read put the total number of deaths at Majdanek anywhere from 42,200 to 1,380,000. At the Düsseldorf trial of the Majdanek war criminals, the West German government charged the Nazis with the murder of no less than 200,000 people at the camp. Jewish historian Martin Gilbert wrote “Between 300,000 and 350,000 people were murdered here in Majdanek over a period of three years.” Raul Hilberg puts the number of Jewish victims at Majdanek at 50,000, but doesn’t mention the non-Jews.

    *According to the Museum booklet, most of the files from the camp are stored in the Soviet Union and have never been released.

  9. paolosilv Says:

    Eyewitness: Hitler’s last days
    By Rob Broomby
    BBC News

    Hitler’s mental health is said to have declined during his final days
    Bernd Freytag von Loringhoven, 91, is one of the last living eyewitnesses to Hitler’s final days.

    He escaped Hitler’s bunker just 24 hours before the dictator shot himself.

    As an aide to army chiefs he had had daily contact with Hitler.

    He describes the order to join his boss Gen Krebs in Hitler’s bunker, just over a week before the dictator’s suicide, as a death sentence.

    He had already survived the fighting on the Russian front and was one of a few to escape from Stalingrad.

    He met Hitler for the first time in July 1944. His predecessor had been executed for his part in the bomb plot against Hitler.

    The young Maj Freytag von Loringhoven, who was not a Nazi party supporter, says he was “completely flabbergasted” when he saw Hitler just days after the blast.

    “I had the image of a very strong, vital person with charisma, but what I saw was a sick old man. His right arm was injured by the attempt and his figure had changed, his head was sunk into his shoulders.

    “His left hand was very weak and his left foot dragged behind him.”

    As for reports that Hitler had had a charismatic spell, he says: “I felt nothing, the eyes were pale and without any expression anymore.”

    He said he was surprised that Germany was in the hands of such a “sick prematurely old man”.

    Dying days

    Inside the bunker he describes wild mood swings. There would be a temporary explosion of hope and then confidence would collapse again. The main topic of conversation was suicide – whether they should take cyanide pills or shoot themselves in the head when the Russians arrived.

    He also recalls the drunkenness in the bunker, but not the orgies that some accounts speak of. He says he was too busy preparing for situation conferences.

    When he met Hitler’s mistress Eva Braun – soon to be the Fuhrer’s wife – he had no idea who she was. The Nazi elite had been very discreet.

    When I saw these poor children it pressed my heart

    Maj Freytag von Loringhoven
    Just days before the end, Magda Goebbels, the wife of Hitler’s Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels, arrived with her six children.

    They would later be poisoned by their parents in the bunker with the help of an SS doctor.

    He recalls their pale faces peering out in fear from inside their dark coats.

    “When I saw these poor children it pressed my heart,” he says.

    He feared there was no chance of getting out.

    News that his trusted SS Chief Heinrich Himmler had made peace feelers to the Allies had a devastating affect on Hitler in the final days.

    “This was like a bomb. Hitler called it treason,” the former major says.

    ‘Ice cold’

    But with his work done, just 24 hours before Hitler’s suicide, Maj Freytag von Loringhoven was given permission to break out.

    He said he had no wish to die “like a rat in the bunker”. He took his leave from Hitler with one last meeting which lasted around 20 minutes.

    “I personally got the impression that he was a bit envious,” he says. “We were 29 or 30 years old and we had a chance to get out because we were sound and young and he had no chance because he was a wreck.”

    He disputes portrayals of Hitler as raving and foaming at the mouth in the final days.

    “I was present at these rages but they were not so excessive,” he says.

    He never saw him screaming with anger but says he could be “ice cold in his expressions and very aggressive, especially towards the generals”.

    Hitler was by the end resigned to his fate. His Reich, which was to have lasted 1,000 years, was in ruins.

    But looking back, one thing still puzzles him. Hitler, he says, “was still so quiet and realistic just 24 hours before he shot himself”.

    The young officer escaped, was captured by the western Allies and held as a prisoner of war. He re-joined the army in 1956 and later served Germany in NATO.

    He maintains that the divide between the army and the Nazi elite was very real and that although there were rumours, no-one discussed the fate of the Jews in top military circles. It was “taboo” he says.

    Asked for his abiding memory of Hitler 60 years on? He pauses at first, then says simply: “He was a terrible creation. Yes, a being, but a being full of evil and cruelty… he was a monster.”

  10. location en camping Says:

    location en camping…

    […]Hitler, Himmler and the Holocaust; Dr. Goebbels; bormann; wannsee conference; waffen ss « Paolosilv's Blog[…]…

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