Von Verschuer, and other Nazis. Evidence of the Holocaust from German Railways

Reported by GEORG BÖNISCH, JAN FRIEDMANN, CORDULA MEYER, KLAUS WIEGREFE

Translated from the German by Christopher Sultan
source: ABC News

In 1968, the German parliament, the Bundestag, passed a hidden amendment to the law. The decisive passage appeared in the “Introductory Law to the Law on Administrative Offences.” It read: “In the absence of personal characteristics, conditions or circumstances establishing the culpability of the offender, the offender’s sentence shall be mitigated.” In other words, those who committed murder simply because they were following orders — as was the case with the overwhelming majority of the accessories — usually got off lightly.

In the first year after the new clause came into effect, proceedings against at least 300 defendants were dropped. These defendants included, for example, planners who had worked at the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA), the agency that essentially organized the murder of Jews. A major case against RSHA senior officials failed, and most of their crimes suddenly came under the statute of limitations.

Erich Nellmann, the Stuttgart chief public prosecutor at the time, fittingly described the problem more than 50 years ago: “Some had the misfortune of being reported to the authorities, while others did not. The sentenced offender knows that many other offenders are living scot-free. He and others perceive this disparity as an injustice.” In retrospect, prosecutors have to concede that mistakes were made.

In this sense, it seems almost coincidental that the criminal prosecution of Nazi war criminals is now entering its final round with cases against the smallest links in the chain, namely people like Demjanjuk. “In fact, it’s embarrassing,” says Rüter.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_T4
It very clearly specifies that they did use these centers to kill concentration camp prisoners as well. ——–

Otmar von Verschuer:
Most dubious of all was the fate of Othmar von Verschuer. He remained a respected scientist in Germany and became Dean of the University of Münster, as well as an honorary member of numerous scientific societies.

From 1919 Verschuer studied medicine at the University of Marburg. He was korporiert in the local CMAS. He also organized the Student Corps Marburg (StuKoMa) of Bogislav von Selchow. As the right hand and first adjutant Selchows Verschuer led in March 1920 as part of the Kapp Putsch, the battalion of StuKoMa to an operation site in Thuringia. The following events were received as of Mechterstädt murders in history. According to Nadine Schroeder Verschuer was probably due to the shooting of fifteen “insurgents” are involved. [1] Due to the then public outrage over the killings, the direct tatbeteiligten students were charged with murder and tried before military courts. Two different trial ended in acquittal but in each case. In Marburg for Verschuer was “the ground under their feet too hot” [2], so moved that he and his friend Charles Diehl at the University of Hamburg and from there to Munich, where he finished his studies. In the winter semester 1921/1922 he was invited to the University of Freiburg, where he met his future mentor, Eugen Fischer.
Verschuer began in 1923 at the University of Tübingen as an assistant to William Weitz, who brought him close to his specialty, the genetic biology research with twins. In 1927 he went to the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics in Berlin-Dahlem. He tried to prove scientifically the racial theory. His affirmation of the racist Nazi eugenics comes from an article in the journal The Erbarzt produced in 1935: “The Leader … is the first statesman who has made the findings of genetic biology and racial hygiene into an important principle of governance. “[3]

1935 Verschuer moved to the Institute of genetic biology research (in the former building of the Institute for Social Research) in Frankfurt, where he also worked as an expert in eugenic sterilization. [4] in 1936 Verschuer became professor at the University of Frankfurt am Main, 1938 Ph.D. Joseph Mengele with him. . As early as 1936 Verschuer was on the advisory board of the Research Department of the Jewish question National Institute for the History of the New Germany [5] In a speech at the University of “racial hygiene as a science and a state responsibility” of the anti-Semite Verschuer said, among other things:

“The State of Adolf Hitler, who for the first time the genetic and racial care brought effectively to the implementation, is therefore also a state that has taken the education of the people than any other state in the strong hand”

– Benno Muller-Hill: The blood from Auschwitz and the silence of the scholars.

Doris Kaufmann (ed.): History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in National Socialism. Wallenstein, ISBN 3-89244-423-4, p. 191

Verschuer was editor of The Erbarzt, which was published until 1939 as a supplement to the German Medical Journal. In it he wrote, among other things, in January 1940 in an editorial:

“The guided us united nations increasingly recognize that the Jewish question is a racial issue, and that therefore they must find a solution, as it was first introduced by us for Germany. ”

– Benno Muller-Hill: The blood from Auschwitz and the silence of the scholars. P. 193

1940, at Verschuer of the Nazi Party and was co-editor of the textbook outline of human heredity and eugenics, the so-called Baur / Fischer / Lenz [5]. Verschuer was the successor of Eugen Fischer from October 1942 to 1948 director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology , Human Heredity and Eugenics, also an expert in biology research department Jewish question of the Office Rosenberg. [6] In 1941, he was an invited guest at the opening of Alfred Rosenberg’s Institute for the Study of the Jewish Question, [5], the first facility of a planned high school of the NSDAP originated in Frankfurt am Main. End of 1942, Verschuer to the advisory board of the newly formed Society for Constitutional Research Board. [5] In 1943, Verschuer honorary professor in Berlin, where he was taken in 1944 in the scientific advisory board of the General Commissioner for the medical and healthcare Karl Brandt [5].

Verschuer’s assistant was in the 1940s, Josef Mengele. In Verschuer investigation “Specific proteins” the blood reaction has been studied for infectious diseases. Mengele infected in the concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau to that end people “of different geographic origin” with agents and sent the samples to Verschuer in Berlin. This research was funded by the DFG, the Verschuer open on the place of research, the concentration camp Auschwitz, reported. [7] also Verschuer researcher **Karin Magnussen collaborated with Mengele. For her also from the DFG-funded research on iris heterochromia she received through the eyes of murdered Mengele Auschwitz prisoners. [8]

In January 1945 he was elected chairman of the Berlin Society for Anthropology, Ethnology and Prehistory, could take office anymore.

At the end of World War II moved Verschuer 1945 Solz at Bebra. [5] In 1946, Verschuer was a casting chamber in Frankfurt as part of the denazification as a “fellow traveler” and sentenced to a fine of RM 600. Robert Havemann, acting director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, protested against this action. In a sworn statement to Otto Hahn, wrote to the British military government recognized the President of the Banking Act on 10 May 1946 Verschuer include:

“One of my former assistant Frankfurt Institute, Dr. M. … was ordered against his will as a doctor at the hospital of the concentration camp Auschwitz, and all who knew him got to know how unhappy he was about and how he relentlessly attempts undertook to achieve a detaching command to the front, unfortunately in vain. From his work has become known only that he has made efforts to be a doctor and the patient helpers. ”

– Benno Muller-Hill: The blood from Auschwitz and the silence of the scholars. In: Doris Kaufmann (ed.): History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in National Socialism. Wallenstein, ISBN 3-89244-423-4, p. 214

Important helpers in the rehabilitation, which ended in his professorship in Münster, he found in the Protestant church. He had joined in 1935 the parish priest of the BK-Otto Fricke (1902-1954). Fricke was appointed head of the Protestant relief organization in Hesse-Nassau and collaborated with Charles Diehl in April 1947 on a contact to Eugen Gerstenmaier, head of the Protestant relief organization in Germany. Gerstenmaier, however, could only help Diehl to a position. In September 1949 **(see below) Adolf Butenandt with other professors wrote a “memorandum concerning Mr Prof. Dr. Otmar Freiherr. v. Verschuer. It formed the basis for Verschuer’s rehabilitation and his appeal to Munster [9]. Butenandt complicity in the connection Verschuer-Mengele is believed by Benno Muller-Hill probable [10].

Verschuer was in 1949 the founders of the Mainz Academy of Sciences. [5] From 1951 he was Professor of Human Genetics and first chair of the newly established Institute for Human Genetics at the University of Münster, sometimes also Dean of the Faculty of Medicine. [11] In 1965 he retired .

In addition to his teaching was Verschuer since 1952 Chairman of the German Society for Anthropology [12].
Verschuer was concerned with biological laws of heredity, especially the inheritance of diseases and anomalies of the people, especially in the twin, family and clan research. He showed a particular interest in sterilization.

Verschuer was “scientific member” of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics in Berlin-Dahlem, the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, the de facto successor to the Kaiser-Wilhelm- company, has worked since 1997 on their past public international pressure. The then President of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Hubert Markl has, in a speech in 2001 the victims of Nazi crimes, which asked in the context of research in the Banking Act have been made to forgiveness.

Witness and victim of the “twin studies” is, for example, the survivor Eva Moses Kor, which operates in Indiana (USA) is a museum in memory of the tortured and murdered in Auschwitz twins [13].

Only 1958, Verschuer freely disseminating racial biological ideas in a “study on Vagantenproblem” of his colleagues Hermann Arnold. “Clan Walking” and “discontinuity” consider the studied group of people “from regular work,” what a “mental hereditary characteristics” is [14]

His recent releases were in 1964, the paper: the former Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics. Report on Scientific Research 1927-1945 [15] and in 1966 the book: Eugenics. Future generations in the view of genetics in the church Luther-Verlag, Witten (Ruhr), were among the program otherwise exclusively theological writings.

de.wikipedia, Verschuer

———-

Karin Magnussen (* 9.) February 1908 in Bremen; d. 19. February 1997 –) was a German biologist and teacher, which promoted the National Socialist racial theory. At the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, she conducted studies on eyes of murdered prisoners from the Auschwitz concentration camp were sent to her by the Physician Josef Mengele.

———
Fritz Lenz (* March 9 1887 in Pflugrad; circle Naugard, Pomerania; † July 6 1976 in Göttingen) was a German anthropologist, geneticist and eugenicist.

Hans Nachtsheim:

From 1941 to 1945 Nachtsheim was head of the Department for Experimental Genetic Pathology at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics (KWI-A), its acting director, he was 1943rd He “[b] enutzte 1943 children from six epilepsy , Euthanasie’ Institution Brandenburg-Gorden for a vacuum experiment “[2]. He conducted research on eyes in Auschwitz and murdered people had indirectly related to human experiments in the field of tuberculosis research[3]. He was a professor of genetics at the HU first, then working at the Free University of Berlin, and his retirement in 1955, the year after he joined the Federal Health Conference. No punishment.

From 1941 to 1945 Nachtsheim was head of the Department for Experimental Genetic Pathology at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics (KWI-A), its acting director, he in 1943. In 1944 he became a scientific member of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (later the Max Planck Society).”), he was so thoroughly in the tradition of race hygiene. In the postwar period, who lives in West Berlin Nachtsheim also engaged in the Congress for Cultural Freedom, an international organization that was supported by the U.S. government to strengthen on intellectuals and scientists pro-Western and anti-communist settings. In the FRG, Nachtsheim was awarded the Great Cross of Merit. [1] de.wikipedia, Nachtsheim.

Also, Siegfried Liebau, d. 1981, at Auschwitz.

====
Complicit?
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt in 1939
Died 18 January 1995(1995-01-18) (aged 91)
Notable awards Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1939)
Kriegsverdienstkreuz (1942)

Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (24 March 1903 – 18 January 1995) was a German biochemist and member of the Nazi party.[1] He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1939 for his “work on sex hormones.”
As the head of a leading institute, he applied for government funding on concentrated research labeled kriegswichtig (important for the war), some of which focused on military projects like the improvement of oxygen uptake for high-altitude bomber pilots. His involvement with the Nazi regime and various themes of research led to criticism after the war and even after his death, the exact nature of his** (see above) political orientation during the Nazi era has never been fully resolved.

**Butenandt was responsible for a letter rehabilitating Dr Verschuer. How guilty was he, if at all?

*The grant proposals and the reports for these grant proposals survived the war, Müller-Hill tells us. In one of his reports von Verschuer wrote that Mengele had collected twins of various races and that their sera were analysed in Berlin by a scientist by the name of Günther Hillmann. Hillmann was then a graduate student, working at the institute of Adolf Butenandt, the Nobel prize-winner and later president of the Max Planck Gesellschaft.

http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?f=6&t=87774
http://www.projectmedholo.org/miscellaneous/

.
====
During the war production plants, all parts of Germany and the occupied territories outsourced, where Siemens widely “foreign workers”as well as forced laborers (also absorbed. “eastern workers”) exploited. Siemens produced in Auschwitz and Lublin with the SS rented concentration campinmates.[11] Numerous Siemens production sites were destroyed by the war. During the Battle of Berlin came to a complete closure of the works in Berlin.

source: Siemens, deutsche wiki

http://www.siemens.com/history/en/news/1049_factory_school.htm
Siemens, history site, skips ww2

During the Second World War there was great damage and loss of the extensive archival material. Accordingly the activities of the Siemens Archives concentrated in the early postwar years, especially on the document by relocation and confiscation widely dispersed stocks back together. This activity was largely completed until 1954. In the same year moved the Siemens Archives from Berlin to Munich, where there was already since 1949, the headquarters of Siemens & Halske AG.
. After the reunification of both German states could be lost are believed archive more widely bought back: the German Central Archives in Potsdam kept in its branch Castle Dornburg near Magdeburg 700 shelf meters of documents, which taken in 1945 by Soviet authorities, moved later to Moscow and finally to the Archives of the GDR authorities had been issued.

http://www.siemens.com/history/de/siemens_corporate_archives/archivgeschichte.htm

=========
Two Reichstransport directors:

DORPMUELLER, DR. JULIUS d 1945
d. 1945, Director of train systems

Ganzenmueller, Albert , d. 1996

(born February 25, 1905 in Passau, † 20 March 1996 in Munich) was a German Nazi and involved as a state secretary in the Ministry of Transport in the deportation of German Jews.

The Doctor of Engineering Albert Ganzenmüller 1923, had participated as a student of a secondary school together with Adolf Hitler on November Putsch in Munich. He was thus a “blood awardees of the Nazi Party.” After studying at the Technical University of Munich (where he was a member of the Corps Rheno-Palatia Munich), he joined in 1931 the railroad administration Nuremberg and became a member of the NSDAP and the SA. In 1940 there Ganzenmüller had reached the rank of a colonel in the “Staff of the Supreme SA leadership.”

1934 Ganzenmüller Reichsbahnrat in Munich and in 1938 appointed a senior executive officer, then in 1939 Head of the Department of Electrical Engineering in National Railroad central office in Munich. 1940, they told him the resumption of the electric train operation in occupied France. In 1941 he was at his own request to the “Directorate East” set in Poltava. There he removed in a short time traffic and was appointed on the recommendation of Albert Speer as Deputy Director General of State Railways and State Secretary at the Ministry of Transport.

Involvement in deportations Ganzenmüller was immediately involved in the organization of the deportation trains. He was involved in the transport program for older German Jews to Theresienstadt and ensured the smooth running of the transports in the mass extermination camps of Operation Reinhardt.

On 16 July 1942 complaining of Himmler’s personal adjutant, SS-General Karl Wolff, the newly appointed Secretary of State on irregular shipments and track repairs on the route to the Sobibor extermination camp. Ganzenmüller replied on 28 July 1942 in writing:

“22 Since 7. runs one train daily with 5 000 Jews from Warsaw to Treblinka Malkinia, also twice a week a train with 5 000 Jews from Przemysl to Belzec. Gedob [i.e. General of the Eastern Railway] is in constant touch with the security Krakow. This is in agreement that the transports from Warsaw to Lublin to Sobibor (near Lublin) rest as long as the renovations make it impossible at this track these shipments (around October 1942). “[…] [1]

Karl Wolff thanked him on 13 August 1942 in a personal letter:

“… With particular pleasure I have taken of your message notes that now a day for 14 days is a train with 5,000 members of the chosen people to Treblinka and we’re put in this way in the situation, these population movements in an accelerated pace perform. […] “[1]

In early 1943, Heinrich Himmler wrote directly to Ganzenmüller to ensure the upcoming “removal of the Jews” to the camp Auschwitz-Birkenau.

1945 Ganzenmüller fled the internment of Italy to Argentina. His denazification process was delayed and resulted in an amnesty in 1952 to terminate the case. Ganzenmüller went back to Germany in 1955 and worked as a planning engineer for Transport Studies at the Hoesch AG.

Since 1957, the prosecutor was investigating him, for the quoted correspondence had been found by the historian Gerald Reitlinger and published. Ganzenmüller sat for ten weeks in custody, but the investigation did not lead to indictments. In 1973, then still a trial before the district court of Dusseldorf. The 68-year old Ganzenmueller was accused of having knowingly aided and abetted by the transports to the murder of millions of Jewish children, women and men and to imprisonment or death. The procedure was organized in 1973 for preliminary hearing disability as a result of a heart attack [2], 1977 then stopped for good. Died a free man.

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