Rashid Ali al-Gailani
Also Rashid Ali al-Kaylani or Rashid al-Kilani (Arabic: رشيد عالي الكيلاني, * 1892 in Baghdad, † 28. August 1965 in Beirut) Was president of the Kingdom of Iraq.
…..As a result, Gailani fled in November 1941 after Berlin, Where he also received Hitler personally had contact. He was ultimately pardoned.
The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, aka
( trans from Wikipedia.de).
Mohammed Amin al-Husseini (Arabic محمد أمين الحسيني, DMG Muhammad Amin al-Husayni, * Probably 1893  in Jerusalem, † 4. July 1974 in Beirut), Also Haj / Hajj Amin al-Husseini or Al-HussainiWas a Islamic Spiritual and Palestinian Arab nationalist from one of the most influential families of Jerusalem. He was known as so-called Grand Mufti of Jerusalem. Its main office next to the “Mufti of Jerusalem” was the “Presidency of the Supreme Islamic Council”.
Amin al-Husseini played a pivotal role in the spread of modern Anti-Semitism in the Arab region and the cooperation of Islamist anti-Semites with the National Socialists. He was a staunch supporter of the German Reich conducted Destruction of the European Jews. He made contact with the National Socialists gained the support of German leadership circles and lived in Berlin since 1941. Al-Husseini was a member of SS and actively carry out propaganda for Germany in the Arabic language. In the late phase of Second World War helped al-Husseini in the Balkans in the mobilization of Muslims for Waffen-SS. The French interior minister said in May 1945 in retrospect, al-Husseini was the “leading figure of German espionage in all Muslim countries.”
After the war, al-Husseini as in several European countries War Crimes sought. He found in Egypt Asylum, where he continued to pursue his ideas.
Cairo. There he was involved in the creation of a Palestinian anti-Zionist student organization. At the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 al-Husseini joined the Ottoman army and became an artillery officer in the 47th Brigade, in and around İzmir was stationed. That was then still a predominantly GreekChristian-populated city in Greek: Smyrna. In November 1916, left al-Husseini, the army and returned to Jerusalem, where he remained until the end of the war.
1919 al-Husseini was the Pan-Syrian Congress in Damascus part, where he Emir Faisal from Iraq as a future king of Syria supported. This year, joined al-Husseini the Arab nationalists Association al-Nadi al-Arabi (German: “The Arab Association”) in Jerusalem, perhaps he was even its founders. He wrote articles for the first newspaper, founded in Palestine, Suria al-Dschanubia (German: “Southern Syria”). Suria al-Dschanubia stood in Jerusalem beginning in September 1919
By 1921, focused on the al-Husseini Pan-Arabism and in particular to Greater Syria with Palestine Southern Province as an Arab state and Damascus as its capital. Greater Syria should cover a territory that the present states of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and IsraelShould include and the occupied territories. The struggle for Greater Syria collapsed after according to the Sykes-Picot Agreement rule over the present territories of Syria and Lebanon from July 1920 to the French League of Nations mandate for Syria and Lebanon was passed. The French army occupied Damascus, defeated King Faisal and smashed Greater Syria. After that, al-Husseini turned from a Damascus-based pan-Arabism to a specifically Palestinian ideology with Jerusalem as its center.
Following anti-Jewish riots on 4 April 1920, at which five Jews were killed in the Jewish quarter of Jerusalem and wounded 234, condemned the British military courts a considerable number of Arabs and Jews to long prison terms. Al-Husseini was because he had fled to Syria, was sentenced in absentia to ten years – on charges of having fueled the insurgency. He had to settle for a single day of this punishment.
In 1921 the British Military administration of Palestine replaced by a civilian administration. The first High Commissioner Herbert Louis Samuel overturned the sentence against al-Husseini, appointed him Mufti of Jerusalem, a position that held the al-Husseini family for more than a century. The following year, Samuel appointed him president of a newly formed “Supreme Islamic Council, which controlled the Muslim courts and schools, and managed a large share of the money on religious foundations.
This designation process was in line with the Ottoman tradition. At that time, the Islamic cleric appointed three candidates, and the secular rulers, the Caliph, Appointed a three to Mufti. After the British had taken over Palestine, was the secular ruler of the High Commissioner. This led to the extraordinary situation where a Jew, Herbert Samuel, the Mufti certain. The only difference was the fact that five candidates have been nominated instead of three. It is believed that the British are now at the following dispute between the Nashashibi and the Husseini clan her finely tuned system of Divide et impera practiced.
In 1929, again inflamed anti-Jewish violence, with the Hebron massacre as the highlight. This could only be stopped by the intervention of the British police and led to the complete expulsion of all Jews from Hebron. Before the Commission of Inquiry by Sir Walter Shaw called al-Husseini, the House of Commons as “nothing other than a Council of Elders of Zion”, in allusion to the fraudulent Protocols of the Elders of Zion.
Al-Husseini was after a heavy collision with the Naschaschibis the leader of the Palestinian-Arab movement. The Naschaschibis, the other distinguished family of Jerusalem, were moderate and willing to adapt as the strongly anti-British Husseini. During most of the British Mandate weakened the argument between these two families the Arab cause in earnest. In 1936 she reached a certain harmony, as all the Palestinian groups joined forces to create a permanent executive organ, the Arab Higher CommitteeTo form under al-Husseini’s chair. The committee called for General strike, Tax strike and closure of local government and demanded an end to Jewish immigration, a ban on land sales to Jews and national independence. The general strike led to the Arab Revolt against British authority, which lasted from 1936 to 1939. Although al-Husseini held at the Arab revolt no initiating role, he quickly took the lead and organized anti-British and anti-Jewish actions. The time of this uprising was al-Husseini, chairman of the Arab Higher Committee and the Arab main spokesman in the Peel Commission. In this role, he brought witnesses in, after which the Jewish population of Palestine Muslim holy sites have been destroyed. He also claimed Palestine as an Islamic country, stood against any compromise in the coexistence with the Jews in Palestine and called for the fulfillment of promises from the British Hussein-McMahon Correspondence.
After the assassination of the British district officer Galilee, Lewis Andrews, 26 September 1937 continued, the British al-Husseini as president of the Supreme Islamic Council and banned the Arab Higher Committee in Palestine. In October 1937 al-Husseini fled to Lebanon where he set up the committee under his leadership again. Al-Husayni retained the support of most Palestinian Arabs and used this power to punish the Naschaschabis.
Al-Husseini in the Arab world initiated a campaign to restore and beautify the Dome of the Rock. Today’s view of the Temple Mount was formed by al-Husseini’s fundraising. The funds were essentially the gilding of the Dome of the Rock.
The rebellion forced Britain in 1939 to substantial concessions to the Arabs. The British gave up the idea to establish Palestine as a Jewish state and limited Jewish immigration over the next five years to a total 75,000. Thereafter, the immigration of Arab agreement be subject. Al-Husseini was, however, the concessions do not go far enough and rejected the new policy.
Period of National Socialism
1933, a few weeks after Hitler’s Seizure of power“ al-Husseini offered the German Consul General in British Mandate of Palestine based in Jerusalem for the first time his services. The offer was initially rejected by the German-British relations are not jeopardized by an alliance with an anti-British leader. Only after 1938, when the German-British relations were no longer relevant, al-Husseini was accepted offer.
The Mufti sought on 15 July 1937 again working with the Nazi regime. He wanted his public statement for an Arab-Palestinian independence, against the Peel plan. Later he sent a personal representative to Berlin to negotiate with the Nazi leaders. SS Group leader Reinhard Heydrich, Head of the Reich Security Main Office, Sent in September 1937 two SS, SS-Master Sergeant (Master Sergeant) Adolf Eichmann and SS Sergeant (Sergeant) Herbert Hagen to Palestine. They came in Haifa to, but could only get a transit visa and therefore went to Cairo. There they met with a member of Haganah. But the purpose of the trip is controversial. During this time, al-Husseini, financial and military support Germany and Fascist Italy. Politically wanted Nazi Foreign Office But do not occur for al-Husseini’s interests, because at that time it was important not to upset England. 1939 al-Husseini fled from Lebanon in the Iraq. There he participated in organizing a revolt against British colonial power as well as pogroms against Iraqi Jews.
In May 1940, rejected the British Foreign Office a quote from the Chairman of Va’ad Le’umi from (Jewish National Council in Palestine) to assassinate al-Husseini, but agreed in November this year Winston Churchill the plan. In May 1941, several members of the Irgun released, including their leader David Raziel flown and to this end in Iraq. The mission was abandoned when Raziel was killed by a German plane.
On 20 January 1941 wrote the Grand Mufti to Hitler and demanded in turn the public political commitment for a purely Arab Palestine, and his men would fight England in return. Been provided by the Nazis by Ernst von Weizsacker, Which was later convicted war criminals, again holding out. It would help deliver arms if the transport is secure. Because the Nazis wanted to agreements with the Axis partner Italy, the Mediterranean and its coastal areas were promised as a surgical field, not nullify all too obvious. Ribbentrop advised the Mufti of sabotage and intelligence operations in favor of the axis. After the British on 2 May 1941 temporarily pro-Nazi attacked Iraq, which had cut its troops in Basra from supplies, the Nazi Foreign Office continued on 3 5. Grobba in motion and provided the pro-German to Mufti and al-Gailani from 15 May 24 combat aircraft. For the military side Hellmuth Felmy set in motion. Ultimately, the pro-Nazi forces in Iraq lost the fight, only 1 aircraft remained intact, for example.
In the realm
Al-Husseini fled so in the spring of 1941, as a result of the failed pro-German coup in Iraq led by Rashid Ali al-Gailani Disguised as a woman to Germany, where he Oybin as a personal guest Adolf Hitler resided. In Europe, he made contacts with Bosnian and Albanian Muslim leaders. He met Joachim von Ribbentrop Hitler and was officially on 28 November 1941 in Berlin received. Germany sent the “Grand Mufti of Jerusalem,” a “residence” in Berlin, in a aryanised House where he had ample funds and an extensive staff available. Here he organized Radio Propaganda for Germany and especially to the Arab-and Farsi-speaking world, wrote appropriate calls, drove espionage and decomposition in the Islamic regions of Europe and the Middle East. Among other things, he joined the Berlin Mosque on, for example on the occasion of the feast of breaking the fast in 1942. After the victory of Allies in the Second Battle of El Alamein he called for Jihad against the Jews: “I declare a holy war, my brothers in Islam! Kill the Jews! Kill them all! “
Dieter Wisliceny, The deputy of Adolf Eichmann, said in 1944 the conviction that the Mufti played a significant role in the murder of European Jews. Husseini had several Nazi leaders, recommended, among them Hitler, Ribbentrop and Himmler, their extinction. As one of the best friends to Eichmann, the Mufti, after Wisliceny of this in the Nuremberg Trials repeated, even the Auschwitz-Birkenau visited and the local gas chambers have visited. For Husseini was the Nazi “Final Solution“Also means the end of the problems in Palestine.
Husseini was apparently exactly what is happening in Poland informed. In a radio broadcast from the Berlin 21 September 1944 he said: “Is it not in your power, oh Arabs to defeat the Jews, who number no more than eleven million?” It was at that time generally known that there were prior to 1939 about 17 million Jews in the world.
1943 al-Husseini prevented the release of 5,000 Jewish children were to be exchanged at the initiative of the Red Cross against 20,000 German prisoners. Through his personal intervention in Heinrich Himmler He reached that the children instead deported to German concentration camps and murdered. The Mufti urged again and again to the strict enforcement of the genocide of the Jews, among others, by Ribbentrop to the importance of the “solution of the World Jewish problem“Implored.
As of 1943, al-Husseini with the organization and training of Bosnian Islamic Army units and Waffen-SSDivisions involved. The largest was the 13. Waffen Mountain Division of the SS “dagger” (the Croatian No. 1) (Also “Handzar”; 21 065 men) who took from February 1944 operations against guerrillas in the Balkans. Previously, she had to “training” 1943 is already in France raged, where it had come also to spin-offs from the squad, part turned against the SS, the survivors fled to the survey Maquis. She was responsible for a series of atrocities against the civilian population. The 23. Waffen Mountain Division of the SS “Kama” (3793 men) did not reach the operational strength of a division and was dissolved after five months, and their families were transferred to other units. Other units were a Muslim SS self-defense regiment in the Sandzak, Called Arab Freedom CorpsThat Arab BrigadeThat Legion Free Arabia and an “Eastern Turk weapons convoy” of the SS Reich SS appointed al-Husseini to SS-group leader (Lieutenant General of the SS) He had to train imams in particular the SS troops and to supervise, who were responsible for the ideological formation of the fighters. Later it became known of these is the “chief imam” of the SS “Eastern Turk weapons Association,”* Nureddin Namangani. He was designated the Bavarian State government in the late ’50s to head a mosque Commission for Munich.
He was with the suppression of the Warsaw Uprising . sat at his discretion Said Ramadan As then-known leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, with the room. For the CIA had this prominent Muslim brother brought in as their fighters against Communism in Munich. As early as 1960, however, the “brothers” the old Bavarian Mufti squad to Namangani from the mosque committee had repressed.
On 28 June 1944 tried to Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern TerritoriesThat under the leadership of the Nazi chief ideologist Alfred Rosenberg stood to win more states for himself and a international fight against Jews, sent by a planned “anti-Jewish Congress in Krakow also an invitation to Mohammed Amin al-Husseini. The project was abandoned a month later for good.
In the final weeks of the second World War II, the Nazis were planning a “training school” to establish Islamic intelligence. Dr. Krehl, a “major and command leaders,” delivered on 26 February 1945, nine weeks before the war, a “secret” report on the subject: “MG Stuttgart: In training camp for leaders in Pfedelbach“Entitled:” Training camp Arabic-V people (liaison) from Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Palestine, Iraq, Iran. Camouflage as a military “training camps for lieutenants” in the German Wehrmacht uniform with shoulder patches “Free Arabia”. This dress was “substantially understated as a civilian … The strong sexual desire of the Arabs have somehow set up a watched brothel into account. “As the course director would Krehl spoke German and knowledgeable” staff sergeant Asami from Iraq, close confidant of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem “. At least one state-owned, foreign power for every V-man group is required. “The rather primitive little intellectually trained Arabs, especially from Africa, are more suitable for sabotage and insurrection (uprising), than for intelligence. . The latter is more familiar with the mentally average aroused Arabs from the Middle East (Palestine, Syria, Iraq, Iran) “Krehl notes:” Strong differences between Arabs from Africa and those from the Middle East as possible to separate both groups. “. The quotations indicate that contempt for the Nazis in fact their collaborators around the Mufti were around. – The timing of these plans, end of February 1945, points out that it was more concerned with the preparation of subversion and sabotage from Mufti circles in Arabia for the impending war.
The National Socialist SD- And later Churches Journalist Giselher Wirsing, Al-Husseini described in a book by 1938 as an “outstanding leader” and “excellent propagandists”. In 1943 he wrote: In Palestine, embodies capitalist thinking and way of life (with its Marxist equivalent) alone in Judaism. An opposite, good role play on the other hand, Islam, where the ideas of the West, the substance of the traditional way of life has not been able to shake. In Palestine, by the fact that the Mufti was both national Arab leader, the collapse of liberal ideas hardly ever occurs. Savoy had Palestine on behalf of the SS in the years of “Arab Uprising” 1936-1939 traveled twice. His comments are typical of a pre-modern societies admired by many friends and defenders Mufti show up today.
At war’s end he fled, like many others, tens of thousands of Nazi war criminals, illegal in Switzerland, where he stayed one day. The Berner “Territorial Command 3″ reported on 7 May 1945 by five landed in Belpmoos: Two pilots and three-Nazi Arabs, including al-Husseini. The Germans were put in civil and backward secrecy, the Arabs were on 8 May 1945 at the transition St.Margrethen French authorities handed him over.
In France, the case Mohammed Amin al-Husseini of Henri Ponsot care, who campaigned for his welfare and early release. 1946 al-Husseini was therefore left the French custody, although his dagger Division had just committed war crimes in that country. He received asylum in Egypt, Where many Nazis found refuge and new fields of activity. Zionist organizations asked the British, al-Husseini as war criminals in Nuremberg to accuse. The British refused, partly because they thought the evidence irrelevant, but also because such a move their problems in Egypt and Palestine would have increased, where al-Husayni was still popular. Also Yugoslavia unsuccessfully demanded his extradition. That same year, al-Husseini began to organize his campaign in Palestine against the Jews and courted activists.
On 22 September 1948 called al-Husseini in Gaza Strip an “Arab government for all Palestine” from, 1 October an independent state with Jerusalem as its capital. This state was accepted by Egypt, Syria, The Lebanon, The Iraq, Saudi Arabia and YemenBut not by Jordan and not by any Arab country. His government was totally dependent of Egypt. As Jordan’s King Abdallah I. ibn Hussain 1951 post of Grand Mufti of Jerusalem awarded to another, al-Husseini organized the assassination in Jerusalem.
Egypt in 1959 sparked the “Arabian government for all Palestine” on. Al-Husseini died in 1974 in Beirut. He wanted to be buried in Jerusalem, but the Israeli government refused this request.
**Al-Husseini was the political mentor of the Yasser Arafat commanded Palestinian organizations. As late as 2002, Arafat said, details of Palestinian Media Watch According to an interview of “our hero al-Husseini.” Arafat was not – as is often assumed – a nephew of al-Husseini, but only a distant relative.
Continuing effect in relation to Germany
Al-Husayni brought the Nazi Propagandist Johann von Leers, Adhered to the continuing his anti-Semitic ideas in the 50 years after Cairo, as it has under Peron’s overthrow of the soil in Argentina was too hot under their feet. The Mufti welcomed him on his arrival here in person. They knew each other from working together in the 40s in Berlin. Leers then worked in Cairo as an author in the German extreme right-wing publications, under several pseudonyms, and by the support of French Holocaust deniers.
The German political scientist Helga Baumgarten Involved in the University of Tübingen has studied (up to 1964 the site of action of the fascist Islam Otto Rössler, Also a partner of the Mufti), is the Mufti as a charismatic (s) and influential (s) leader at the head of the movement (The Arabs). The conditions it is with German financial staged uprisings of the 30′s for them a Arab revolt, the masses of the peasants rebelled against the Zionist … implantation in their country.
Fritz Grobba d. 1973
Ambassador to Iraq and Saudi Arabia
From October 1932, Dr. Fritz Grobba was appointed as the German Ambassador to the Kingdom of Iraq and was sent to Baghdad. Grobba was able to speak both Turkish and Arabic. He frequently spoke of Arab nationalism and of ousting the British from the Middle East. Grobba purchased a Christian-owned newspaper, The Arab World (al-‘Alam al-‘Arabi). He serialized an Arabic version of German dictator Adolf Hitler’s My Struggle (Mein Kampf) and soon Radio Berlin began to broadcast in Arabic
Grobba was also the German Ambassador to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Fawzi al-Qawuqji (Arabic: فوزي القاوقجي; 1890–1977) was the field commander of the Arab Liberation Army (ALA) during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War in Palestine,