Hitler quote: “After centuries of crocodile tears shed over the defense of the poor and the humiliated, the moment has come when we must decide to defend the strong against the weak… Natural instinct orders all living beings not only to conquer their enemies but to exterminate them. In the old days the conqueror had the prerogative of exterminating whole races and peoples.”
*SS Captain Bruno Melmer (born 1909 in Wiesbaden; d. 1982 in Berlin) the so-called Office cashier led at the SS-Hauptamt, Dept. A II, quasi a SS internal bank or a fund within the SS economic and administrative main office in Berlin. Melmer is referred to as its Director and served from May 20, 1943 (the first documented nine gold bar) and 2 April 1945 for safety and Goldtransfers from the NAZI concentration and extermination camps for an account of the SS at the Reichsbank . Mentioned below, Nazi Gold.
p. 72, Jacques Delarue
The Gestapo : A history of horror.
SIR DAVID MAXWELL-FYFE: If you do not consider it proved, let me remind you of the affidavit of Hoettl, who was Deputy Group Leader of the Foreign Section, of the Security Section of Amt IV of the RSHA. He says that approximately 4,000,000 Jews have been killed in the concentration camps, while an additional 2,000,000 met death in other ways. Assume that these figures — one is a Russian figure, the other a German — assume they are even 50 percent correct, assume it was 2,000,000 and 1,000,000, are you telling this Tribunal that a Minister with your power in the Reich could remain ignorant that that was going on?
Goering: This I maintain, and the reason for this is that these things were kept secret from me. I might add that in my opinion not even the Fuehrer knew the extent of what was going on.
This is also explained by the fact that Himmler kept all these matters very secret. We were never given figures or any other details.
source: Nuremberg trials, Goering professes ignorance.
SIR DAVID MAXWELL-FYFE: You heard what I read to you about Hitler, what he said to Horthy and what Ribbentrop said, that the Jews must be exterminated or taken to concentration camps. Hitler said the Jews must either work or be shot. That was in April 1943. Do you still say that neither Hitler nor you knew of this policy to exterminate the Jews?
Goering: For the correctness of the document.
SIR DAVID MAXWELL-FYFE: Will you please answer my question. Do you still say neither Hitler nor you knew of the policy to exterminate the Jews?
Goering: As far as Hitler is concerned, I have said I do not think so. As far as I am concerned, I have said that I did not know, even approximately, to what extent these things were taking place.
SIR DAVID MAXWELL-FYFE: You did not know to what degree, but you knew there was a policy that aimed at the extermination of the Jews?
Goering: No, a policy of emigration, not liquidation of the Jews. I knew only that there had been isolated cases of such perpetrations.
SIR DAVID MAXWELL-FYFE: Thank you.
Dr Carl Ungerwitter: Who is he?
Like his fellow IG Farben executive Georg von Schnitzler, Wurster was close to Dr Carl Ungerwitter, a government chemist with links to leading figures in the Schutzstaffel.
member of the board of Allianz, became head of the “Reich Group for Insurance” in 1934. He represented the insurance industry in a conference summoned by Hermann Göring after the November Pogrom of 1938. Hilgard reported on the material damages caused during the Kristallnacht Pogrom and the estimated amounts of money insurance companies had to cover.
**Philipp Kessler, as leader of the Reich Federation of the Electrical industry
Kurt Paul Schmitt (7 October, 1886 in Heidelberg – 2 November, 1950 in Heidelberg) was a German economic leader and the Reich Economy Minister
In 1937, and until 1945, Schmitt held the board chairmanship of Münchener Rückversicherung AG. He was also on Allianz AG’s supervisory board until 1945. As a member of the Freundeskreis Reichsführer-SS, Heinrich Himmler promoted him to SS brigadeführer on 15 September 1935.
Since Schmitt was functioning as AEG supervisory board chairman, they donated to Himmler between RM 12,000 and 15,000 yearly, and Münchner Rückversicherung and Continental Gasgesellschaft between RM 6,000 and 8,000. (6)
From 1945 to 1949, Schmitt had to undergo Denazification, administered by the United States Army. He lost all his offices, and he was barred from practising his profession. In 1946 he was classified as a Hauptschuldiger (literally “main culprit”). This designation was reviewed in several court proceedings, and was overturned in 1949. He would now only be classified as a Mitläufer, or follower. He nevertheless still had to pay a fine and the court costs.
nothing more on wiki.de
August von Finck, Sr. (July 18, 1898 – April 22, 1980) was a German banker.
He was born in Kochel, German the son of banker Wilhelm von Finck (1848-1924), founder of insurance giant Allianz and private bank Merck Finck & Co. Following the Anschluss of Austria to Nazi Germany, his business benefited greatly when the Nazis seized the Vienna-based firm of S M von Rothschild and in October 1939 sold it to Merck, Finck & Co.
After the annexation of Austria into the German Reich in 1938 took Merck, Finck & Co. the opportunity to take on the Viennese private bank SM von Rothschild (“Aryanized”). This highly renowned Austrian private bank, owned by Louis Nathaniel de Rothschild, had controlled until 1931, the Austrian Creditanstalt. From July 1938 it was by Merck, Finck & Co. managed provisionally, 1940 in Vienna by the newly established Bank v. Nicholas E. – here were Merck, Finck & Co. with 71 and the German banking industry owns 19 percent of Dusseldorf – ” Aryanized “. Louis Nathaniel de Rothschild got back the remaining value after the Second World War, agreed to forgo a re-establishment of the Bank SM von Rothschild.
After a period of inter-governmental influence and free enterprise under the Nazi regime was the bank Merck, Finck & Co., not least because of the paralyzed involvement of the owners and executives in the Nazi economic policy totally in the postwar years
Walter Huppenkothen (* December 31 1907 in Haan in the Rhineland , † 1979 in Lübeck ) was a German jurist , SS banner leader in the Reich Security Main Office and Nazi criminals.
Was a member of trials against those who tried to kill Hitler, yet prior to that had worked with Eichmann.
Prof. Dr. med. Erwin Gohrbandt, Dachau Dr. Punished at all? By 1956 he was rehabilitated.After the war, December 1958 he became professor emeritus . Until his death in 1965 he led a clinic in the Tiergarten.
dead 03.01.1965 Berlin
Dr. rer. pol. Franz Hayler
* 29.08.1900 Schwarzenfeld / Bayern,
† 11.09.1972 Aschau / Chiemgau
Scholti-Klink, Gertrud (1902 –
joined the NSDAP
in 1928. She became leader of
the Baden Nationalsozialistische-
Frauenschaft – the NS Women’s
Vrba-Wetzler, report on Auschwitz-birkenau:
“To the inauguration of the first crematorium at the beginning of March 1943, which by the gassings and burning of 8,000 took place, prominent guests came from Berlin, high officers and civilians. They were content and looked through the looking hole, which is attached to the gas chamber. They discussed and praised the work being carried out.”
Adolf Theuer , hanged 1947.
Sanitätsdienstgefreiter; a medical orderly as part of the Sanitätswesen, one of the five concentration camp departments involved in running such a facility. He was also a member of the Desinfektionskommando (disinfection squad), the unit of SS medics involved in the mass gassing of prisoners. One of Theuer’s responsibilities was inserting the Zyklon B into the gas chamber, a task shared by other SS orderlies such as SS-Unterscharführer Hans Koch and SS-Oberscharführer Josef Klehr. During the Frankfurt Auschwitz Trials, Klehr, the chief of the Desinfektionskommando, testified that Theuer explained to him that he would insert the gas when ordered to do so by the accompanying SS doctor.
SS-Unterscharführer Oswald Kaduk recalled an incident when Theuer, his fellow countryman, was reluctant to insert the gas. Kaduk stated that:
“…I have even seen SS men who were supposed to be involved in gassing operations cry. And to them, the then doctor, Dr. Mengele said, ‘You have to do it’. He said… I can remember Theuer well. I knew him from… was my fellow countryman, been a young man. And he said, ‘You have to do it.’ He did it, with tears in his eyes. He inserted it and immediately shut the hatch. I was there.”
—Oswald Kaduk, “Auschwitz, Stimmen.”
Aristocrats had enrolled in the Schwarze Korps, SS, men such as Prince Waldeck-Pyrmont.. Grand Duke of Mecklenburg, Prince Hohenzollern Sigmaringen, Duke of Brusnwick, Prince Lippe-Biesterfeld, General Count von der Schulenburg, Archbishop Groeber of Freiburg [who later turned against the Nazis].
Gebhard Himmler, Jr., b. 1898, died, 197-.
Ernst’s elder brother, Gebhard Himmler, in a written account of his life, described himself as a civil servant, barely referring to the Nazi party, and never once mentioning Hitler. During her research, Ms. Himmler discovered her great uncle had been a party member, too. In charge of licensing engineers to work in Germany, he based his decisions on the devotion candidates showed to the Führer.
Katrin Himmler realized that the myth was false: the brothers of Heinrich were not good Germans who happened to have an unsavory brother; they were convinced Nazis, as were their parents and, evidently, almost everybody among their acquaintance, who used Heinrich’s influence to rise even faster than their genuine talents would have moved them. Family papers, saved when they could easily have been incinerated, completed the unmasking, and Katrin Himmler says none of her relatives demurred at the exposure.
For her this was a turning point: she realised once and for all just how deeply her grandfather and her great-uncle *Gebhard Himmler were in thrall to their brother’s murderous racial policies.”
“When I mentioned the question of Hitler’s relationship to the Judenausrottung [the extermination of the Jews], both said they believed the initiative or order had come from Hitler, and that Heinrich had carried it out faithfully to the end. They could not believe Heinrich had done this on his own initiative. Gebhard Himmler recalls his brother once saying to him that as Reichsführer SS and Chef der deutschen Polizei he had had the unfortunate task of taking upon him all the unpleasant (schwarz) aspects of human life, but he hoped he had done so conscientiously.”
source: David Irving, discredited author
d. August 24, 1972) was a high-ranking Nazi politician who was in charge of Lublin concentration camp and who organized the creation of the Częstochowa Ghetto. He was the mayor of the city Hof between 1933 to 1941. In 1942 he became a Gruppenführer in the SS.
Wendler was classified as a ‘major offender’ but eventually was downgraded and allowed to re-enter German society. Katrin Himmler suggests that he was very lucky. Gebhard was interned for three years, but eventually rehabilitated, In May 1945, Wendler was in American captivity and there was the false name suggestion more. For this reason was Wendler not after Poland transferred, but released from Allied internment in September 1945. Then he hired as a construction worker. On 3 August 1948, he was arrested and sentenced to four years labor camp in the process of casting Chamber on 22 December 1948 In April 1949, the judgment was reduced to three years in prison. Wendler denied during the proceedings, to have known some of the objective of the deportations of the Jews.
On 12 September 1952 he was in the group “Loaded” downgraded. By grace decision of Bavarian Prime Minister Wilhelm Hoegner, he was classified on 28 October 1955 as “Followers” and could get this in 1955 once again as a lawyer in Munich admitted to. Since 1 July 1953, he had worked for a lawyer for the legal protection Office of the Evangelical aid organisation and campaigned there for German prisoners of war criminals in Poland. The prosecution pre-trial court he became 1951 except persecution set, the process of the StA of Munich was posted on the 1966, a further preliminary proceedings were suspended on 5 October 1970.
NS Awards Goldenes Parteiabzeichen der NSDAP
Soviet soldiers guard Adolf’s bunker.
In America, December of 1941, the film industry went to war along with the rest of the United States. These award-winning documentaries are the work of some of Hollywood’s finest producers and directors. Among them are John Ford’s classic “The Battle of Midway”, “Report From the Aleutians” by John Houston and William Wyler’s “Memphis Belle”. Shot at the front, with some of the filmmakers facing the same dangers as the fighting men, you will also see some of the war’s most memorable war correspondents, Ernest Hemingway and the GIs favorite, Ernie Pyle. These films, bursting with patriotism, are the filmmakers definitive legacy to the American servicemen and women who fought in history’s greatest conflict.
Georg-Henning Graf von Bassewitz Behr (* 21 March 1900 on gut Lützow; d. January 1949 in Magadan) was a German SS-Gruppenführer, Lieutenant-General of the Waffen-SS and police during World War II. After he was acquitted in August 1947 in the Hamburg Curiohaus as a war criminal, he was transferred to the Soviet authorities on 16 September 1947. For the murder of the 45,000 civilians in the area of Dniepropetrovsk was he sentenced to 25 years hard labor. He died two years later in a labor camp in Eastern Siberia.
Willi Otto Kloppmann (b. January 29 1902 at Immensen ; † unknown) was a German SS master sergeant and a detective Secretary Head of Political Department in the Majdanek concentration camp and the Dachau concentration camp . For the same reason in 1981 set by a court in Munich, the investigations against Kloppmann.  About his future is not known.
Franz Riedweg (* 10. April 1907 in Luzern; † 22. Januar 2005 in München) war ein Schweizer Arzt und SS-Obersturmbannführer. In 1944, the Switzerland deprived him of his citizenship. After 1949, Riedweg worked as a doctor in Munich, where he died on 22 January 2005 at the age of 98. He was not accused of war crimes, but he did fight for Hitler.
Ernst Rudin (* April 19 1874 in St. Gallen , † October 22 1952 in Munich ) was a Swiss physician , psychiatrist and eugenicist / eugenicists . Was one of the founders of the 1933 law on euthanasia. He received no punishment.
Arthur Gütt [Guitt], a physician and director of public health affairs, d. 1949, brief detention.
Richard von Hegener (* September 2 1905 in Sensburg , East Prussia ; † September 18th 1981 in Hamburg ) was in the National Socialist German Reich as an office manager in the main office of the leader responsible for organizing the Nazi “euthanasia” program .
Falk Alfred Ruttke (* November 11th 1894 in Halle (Saale) , † September 9 1955 in Stuttgart – Bad Cannstatt ) was a German jurist .
“Nazism was ‘applied biology’ ” said R. Hess.
July 14, 1933, the “Law for the Protection of Hereditary Health” was passed, authorizing the “racial state.”
NEW: Franz Josef Kallmann, a researcher on schizophrenia, who demanded an even more radical sterilization policy than the Nazis. He co-operated closely with the German Research Foundation for Psychiatry in Munich and its leader, Ernst Rüdin. From Rüdin he received help in leaving Germany and finding a job in USA, and Rüdin’s assistant, Theo Lang, delivered data-material from Munich to New York. After 1945 Rüdin got a denazification certificate from Kallmann who already co-operated again with Lang.
Ernst Boepple, early Nazi,hanged 1950
Erwin Baur d 1933.
Richard Walther Darré. d 1953
Friedrich Weber (* 30. Januar 1892 in Frankfurt am Main; † 19. Juli 1955)
Hermann Werner Siemens, d. 1986. He was involved in funding eugenics.
publisher, Urban & Schwarzenberg. Before 1933, Siemens member was the active people’s Party. As head of Central Engineering Department he became a member of the Management Board of Siemens-Schuckertwerke AG in 1935 and later as Chairman of the Board of the two tribal societies of Siemens & Halske or Siemens-Schuckertwerke “Head of the House”.
Siemens sat until 1945 in the Supervisory Board of the United steel works, mannesmannröhren-Werke, Krupp and Deutsche Bank. On 5 December 1945, he was arrested and questioned in the “civil internment No. 91”, as a witness he had been “very unwilling and evasive” .
In the position he held after the death of his uncle, Carl Friedrich von Siemens from 1941 to 1956, Hermann von Siemens was the company important impulses for the reconstruction after World War II. He was committed for the promotion of scientific and technical research within and outside the company, he was President of the Fraunhofer Society from 1955 to 1964.
Seine Werk „Grundzüge der Vererbungslehre, Rassenhygiene und Bevölkerungspolitik“ in 13. Auflage erscheinen.
Gustav von Dickhut-Hararch
Bruno Kurt Schultz (* 3. August 1901 in Sitzenberg; † 1997) war ein österreichisch-deutscher SS-Führer, Anthropologe und Hochschullehrer. May be on the list already.
Philalethes Kuhn was a real doctor, but also a geneticist.
Kuhn was one of the leading eugenicist of his time. Since 1905, he was a member of the German society of him with formed for racial hygiene and entered already prior to World War I for racial selection. Already in 1923, he joined the Nazi party. in 1931 he joined the Nazi party. He was a member of the Reichsschaft of the University teacher in the NS teacher’s Association from 1932 and participated several times in “Eugenical training courses” of the Nazi German Medical Association. As one of the first professors, he took up the theme of “Racial hygiene and population policy” in his lectures. After the “Nazis”, in May 1933 he belonged to the actors in the book-burning.
died two years later on 4 August 1937.
Max von Gruber d 1927
Julius Friedrich Lehmann (* 28 November 1864 in Zürich; died March 24, 1935 in Munich) was a German Publisher and founder of j. F. Lehmanns Verlag, which published medical, völkisch and racist literature. Turn of the century, Lehmann contributed significantly to that Munich became an early Center of anti-Semitism in Germany. In the Weimar Republic, Lehmann was an early benefactor of the Nazi party (NSDAP), later he became a member.
Fritz Lenz (* 9. März 1887 in Pflugrade; Kreis Naugard, Pommern; † 6. Juli 1976 in Göttingen) war ein deutscher Anthropologe, Humangenetiker und Eugeniker. In der Zeit der Weimarer Republik und im nationalsozialistischen Deutschen Reich war er einer der führenden Rassenhygieniker.
“With Hindenburg for people and Reich!”
What role did German industry play in the rise of Hitler? Some of the industrialists wanted Hindenburg and Von Papen, but not Hitler. Here are some names for research:
Karl Vincent Krogmann died in Hamburg in March 1978
(* 3. März 1889 in Hamburg; † 14. März 1978)
Ewald Otto E. Hecker (* 14. Oktober 1879 in Berlin; † 12. Februar 1954 )
To the Board of Directors of the Foreign Trade Office for the Northern March, Emil Helfferich was 1936. In 1939, he was Chairman of the Board of the German-American Petroleum Company (ESSO) in Hamburg, which belonged to 94% of the Standard Oil of New Jersey; in 1940, he went to Tokyo as Chairman of the Association of East Asian land.
The authors “affirm the necessity of a government independent from parliamentary parties.” According to them, such a non-democratic government would have majority support of the general public “if one ignores the communist party, which rejects the state.”
Bankers, Aristos and Industrialists .
1932, a letter was sent to Hindenburg by Fritz Thyssen (industrialist), Ewald Hecker (president of the Chamber of Industry and Commerce), Dr. Kurt von Eichborn (banker), Friedrich Reinhart (banker), Dr. Hjalmar Schacht (banker), August Rosterg (director of Winterhall AG, Kassel), E. Helfferich (shipowner), Eberhard Grav von Kalckreuth (landowner), Graf von Keyserlingk (landowner), Joachim von Oppen-Dannenwalde (landowner), and several others; the letter was supported by Dr. Albert Vögler (Vereinigte Stahlwerke, i.e. United Steel), Dr. Paul Reusch (Gutehoffnungshütte) and Dr. Fritz Springorum (Hoesch).
Erich Ferdinand August Lübbert (* 4. Januar 1883 in Buchwald, Kreis Koschmin, Preußen, heute Polen; † 19. Juli 1963) in Windhoek, Südwestafrika
Robert Graf von Keyserlingk-Cammerau (* 10. März 1866 in München; † 1959) war ein deutscher Staatsrechtler, Ministerialdirektor und Mitbegründer der DNVP.
more on the Bankers and industrialists:
On May 8, 1954, the Landgericht Darmstadt [Darmstadt State Court] found the former company commander Friedrich Nöll and his Hauptfeldwebel Emil Zimber guilty of acting as accessories to manslaughter and sentenced them to four and three years in prison respectively. The sentences were reduced to three and two years in 1956. In the opinion of the court, Nöll and Zimber were responsible for the execution of the Jewish inhabitants of Krutsha — most of whom were old people, women, and children
“Defiance: The Bielski Partisans,” written by Dr. Nechama Tec, a sociologist from the University of Connecticut.
During World War II, Swiss banks loaned money to a wide variety of German enterprises which were involved in armaments as well as activities linked to activities involved in the extermination of the Jews. In addition, Credit Suisse and the Swiss Bank Corporation closely cooperated with major German banks which resulted “in some of the most questionable transactions of the wartime period: dealings with gold booty and/or looted gold. As late as 1943, the Union Bank of Switzerland granted Deutsche Bank a new loan of over 500,000 francs. Relations were maintained until the end of the war and even later.”
the amount of gold stolen from Holocaust victims in Eastern Europe has been estimated 12.5 million francs while that expropriated and looted from individuals in the Reich was at least 300 million francs.
Dr Emil Puhl, Reichsbank: source, de.wiki *google trans
As much as Puhl tried for opportunistic reasons, abroad to appear as a cosmopolitan banker with distance to the Nazi regime, so convincing, he staged in Germany as loyal to the system and supporter of Hitler: “Our leader, Adolf Hitler, an empire has created for it and again worthwhile to use all his strength and, if need be, to give even his life. We all have within us the firm belief in his victorious leadership. (…) Our leader, Adolf Hitler, Sieg Heil! ” .
Emil Puhl and the “gold washing” in Switzerland [Edit] In addition to serving as executive vice president, and “secret rulers of the Reichsbank, with excellent relations with Himmler, Heydrich and the SS”  was a focus of Puhl’s work before and during the Second World War, his position as one of the President of the Bank for International Settlements in neutral Switzerland. Switzerland should be after 1939 for “gold hub of Europe”, the Nazi regime in Germany and his helpers in the recovery and valuable services “laundering” of dirty, because in the occupied countries contributed looted gold. Switzerland and the Swiss National Bank wrapped nearly four-fifths of sales of gold from the Reichsbank. Emil Puhl’s role was comparable to that of a “dealer”, the national bankers in Bern gave the German gold looted and exchanged it against hard Swiss francs. These currencies had been of decisive importance for the German Navy and defense industry, as raw materials of war were otherwise buy on the world market either with German gold nor with marks.  “A prerequisite for the continuation of the war, therefore the systematic theft of gold in the invaded countries, which was exchanged for foreign currency. “
Reichsbank Vice President Puhl knew it, his – but also whether the euphoric good business – to deceive Swiss German colleagues about the origin of the looted gold. He appeared to them “always be a dignified and trustworthy gentleman, a lie is not capable of” holding . Robert MW Kempner, American chief prosecutor in the Wilhelmstrasse process, remembered Puhl as “a polite, friendly, approachable gentleman, a typical officer,” who had summoned all his intelligence, “to quote from the thing to come out” . Today it is recognized that Puhl was a “key figure of the looted gold trade”  during the Second World War. The Independent Commission of Experts: Switzerland – Second World War came the end of the 1990s by among others the question was able to establish how the Board of the Swiss National Bank (SNB) in 1945 “such a close and friendly relationship with a shady character like Reichsbank Vice President Emil Puhl” [18 ]. Historians recognize that Puhl was “not a Nazi activist” was, but he was committed “for the goals of the Nazi-gold politics.” “At the same time understood how masterful Puhl, to let shine through in his regular visits to Switzerland skepticism about the Nazi regime and to pose as an anti-Nazi. Leading personalities from the financial and economic knew him as a competent professional and pleasant conversation partner to appreciate. “
On 1 May 1945, Puhl arrested by the Allies  and commissioned on 3 May 1946 an affidavit in an internment camp near Baden-Baden from that in the Nuremberg trial of major war criminals during the testimony of Walter Funk on 7 Was read May 1946. In the case against the former Reichsbank president stressed the witness Puhl his former superiors strongly . Puhl was on 15 May 1946 in Nuremberg and the “Melmer gold” interrogated. Of the depots in the vaults of the Reichsbank in Frankfurt am Main, where the SS deposited gold, jewels and other valuables from prisoners of the Nazi extermination camps in the east (“Melmer gold”), knew Puhl loud statement of his employee, *Albert Thoms from the beginning .
Puhl 4 November 1947 at the Wilhelmstrasse trial, which took place in the context of the Nuremberg Trials, was prosecuted. On 11 April 1949, Puhl of his outstanding role in the recovery of the SS looted gold to five years in prison.  in December 1949, Puhl was **released early from prison for war criminals in Landsberg.
Immediately after his release from Landsberg was Puhl, thanks to its excellent international experience at the Bank for International Settlements , initially a freelance consultant and then director of the Foreign Department and member of the Hamburg Bank, one of the successor institutions of the Dresdner Bank until he in 1957 in the retirement occurred.  From 1952 to 1957 he was a member of the Central Advisory Board of Dresdner Bank.  Puhl was a member from 1951 to the Supervisory Board of the cooling Transit Company and was there from 1954 Vice Chairman.  In November 1959 gave the President the Italian Republic, “the member of the Central Advisory Board of Dresdner Bank AG and the Advisory Board of the Italian Economic Association, Emil Puhl, in recognition of his contributions to the deepening of economic relations, the German-ltalian Commander’s Cross of Merit of the Italian” .
Emil Puhl died in March 1962.
Postwar restitution: After negotiations, the Swiss government signed the Washington Agreement in May 1946 which called to a payment by the Swiss of 250 million francs During the Second World War, Switzerland was the hub of European gold trade. Almost 80% of the German gold shipments abroad were arranged through it. Between 1940 and 1945, the German state bank sold gold valued 101.2 million Swiss francs to Swiss commercial banks and 1,231.1 million francs through the Swiss National Bank (SNB). While, its trading role as such could be seen as the result of maintaining neutrality, the fact that a proportion of the gold had in fact been stolen from private individuals and the central banks of Germany’s defeated neighbors (particularly Belgium and the Netherlands.) This looted gold was then sold to the Swiss for Swiss francs which were used for making strategic purchases for the German war effort.
Some 120 kilograms of gold taken from Holocaust victims in Nazi death camps was sent to Switzerland during the war, an international panel of historians said in Zurich yesterday as it released the first official report on Switzerland’s gold trade with the Nazis.
Walther Funk *& Frick were involved in nazi financial crimes.
*Deutsche Bank dismissed its three Jewish board members in 1933. In subsequent years Deutsche Bank took part in the aryanization of Jewish-owned businesses: according to its own historians, the bank was involved in 363 such confiscations by November 1938. During the war, Deutsche Bank incorporated other banks that fell into German hands during the occupation of Eastern Europe. Deutsche provided banking facilities for the Gestapo and loaned the funds used to build the Auschwitz camp and the nearby IG Farben facilities. Deutsche Bank revealed its involvement in Auschwitz in February 1999.
According to unproved rumours, the gold reserves [hidden in Neuschwantstein] were plunged in a lake, e.g. in the Alat Lake of southern Germany. Furthermore, between May 1945 and March 1947 approximately £2.5 billion was stolen from the Reichsbank through various robberies masterminded by rogue members of the SS. Though these robberies were spaced out and not masterminded by a single source, the Guinness Book of Records currently lists them as the largest robbery in history.
Jews boarded the trains because first the nazis had starved them with bad work rations. In return for food, the many boarded the trains to become resettled to ‘work camps.’ The Nazis deceived them.
After the war, there were billions of dollars in gold missing from the Nazi banks in Berlin.
At least part of the fate of the hoard can be traced through the careful report made by Netzeband. He was horrified to realise that no one — and particularly not the local commanding officer Colonel Franz Pfeiffer — would give him a receipt for the gold and other valuables. gold worth more than $3 million (at 1945 prices) was still missing. Where was it?
It is believed that at least some of the gold was dug up by a few of those who had originally buried it at Walchensee. Franz Pfeiffer certainly is suspected of being one of these gold ‘liberators’. He left Germany and spent the rest of his life in Argentina. names: Georg Netzeband, a high-ranking Reichsbank official. Dr. Emil Puhl.
Rauch left the gold with a Wehrmacht Colonel named Franz Pfeiffer with vague instructions to protect it from foreign armies.
Werner Veick, the head cashier of the Reichsbank’s foreign notes department, and Dr Paul Ortwin Rave, curator of the German State Museum and assistant director of the National Galleries in Berlin.
Karl Kimmich (b September 14, 1880 in Ulm, d September 10, 1945 in Berlin) was a German banker. From 1933 to 1942 he was member of the executive board of Deutsche Bank and from 1942 to 1945 chairman with the same firm.
The defeat of Nazi Germany in May 1945 also resulted in the dissolution of the Reichsbank, along with other Reich ministries and institutions. The explanation of the disappearance of the Reichsbank reserves in 1945 was uncovered by Bill Stanley Moss and Andrew Kennedy, in post War Germany.
[The Reichsbank is NOT the same as Deutschebank.]
Hermann Abs was partly responsible for the board of Deutsche Bank for the (forced sale) of Jewish businesses .
Many employees of the Reichsbank were later employed in similar positions at the Bank of German states and the federal bench: source, Deutschebank, de.wiki.
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