more on Auschwitz, part II

NEW material added 7/23/12: Grünenthal was founded 1946 by Hermann Wirtz, Sr. as Chemie Grünenthal GmbH in Stolberg (Rhineland), later it was renamed in Grünenthal GmbH and the headquarter was moved to Aachen. A lot of old Nazis got positions in the company, as Otto Ambros, who was one of the responsibles for the KZ Auschwitz III.[3] source: Wikipedia, Grunenthal

Heinrich Mückter [Mueckter]  (born June 14, 1914 in Körrenzig [1]; † 1987) was a German physician, pharmacologist and chemist. Of the Polish judicial him medical experiments on concentration camp prisoners and forced laborers during the Nazi era were accused. He escaped arrest by fleeing to the western zones of occupation. [2]

Publicly known he was in his position as scientific director at the pharmaceutical company Grünenthal in Stolberg, where under his leadership, the sleeping and sedative thalidomide developed.

In 1933 he became a member of the SA and in 1937 joined the Nazi Party. [1] During the years of World War II he was a staff physician and deputy director of the [Institute for Research of typhus virus] and the Army High Command in Krakow. With inhuman methods where the Weigl vaccine against typhoid fever was made. The “medical experiments” concentration camp prisoners were used as subjects, not a few died there. Polish forced laborers were used as hosts for the pathogen lice to death. In 1946, the public prosecutor in Krakow, was therefore warrant against Henry Mückter, but he was able to escape by fleeing into the western zones of occupation.

From 1946 Henry Mückter Grünenthal worked in GmbH, Stolberg. There he developed the substance N-Phthalylglutaminsäureamid who was named thalidomide. Thalidomide was the basis of the sleeping and sedative thalidomide, on 1 October 1957 and was put on the market in Germany was not as advertised prescription drug to pregnant women primarily. Thalidomide was not only the basis for thalidomide, but specimens were also included as Grippex and Algosediv. Thalidomide is responsible for the malformation of about 5000-10000 newborn children in the late 1960s 1950er/Anfang came to the world, and for many miscarriages. The geneticist Widukind Lenz called on 15 Mückter november 1961, calling for a withdrawal of the product. [5] At the end of 1961, stopped the sale of the preparation by the management. In January 1968, Mückter and other responsible employees of Grünenthal GmbH put on trial. This ended in April 1970 with a termination of the proceedings.

Hermann Eyer (born June 29, 1906 in Mannheim; died 28 February 1997 in Munich) was a German physician and microbiologist.
Still he studied still the medicine in Heidelberg that 1932 with degree and PhD. graduated from. Eyer was approved in 1933 and obtained a position at the hygienic and bacteriological Institute of the University of Erlangen, where he later received his Habilitation in November 1933.[2]
After the transfer of power to the Nazis, he joined the SA in 1933 and despite recording lock of the party beginning August 1935 joined the Nazi party (Mitgliedsnr. 3.687.955).[2]After he 1936 was habilitated at Erlangen, he was appointed Privatdozent at the University of Berlin and 1943 to extraordinary Professor in 1937.[2] in 1937 he was reassigned to the Robert-Koch-Institute, where he did research in the virus Research Department under the direction Eugen Haagens of vaccine infection in mice.[3] In the spring of 1939 Eyer participated in tests with spot fever vaccinations in Addis Ababa with his assistant Przybylkiewicz in the Italian-occupied Ethiopia and had also to the Duke of Aosta Institute itself put an appropriate vaccination with this.[4] Previously he had participated as a surgeon major under the direction of German health management in the second Italo-Abyssinian War, to observe the effect of certain drugs in the Italian army. World War II: Director of Institute for virus research of the OKH in Krakow and typhus .
After the start of World War II he led after the German occupation of Poland from October 1939 until the retreat of the Wehrmacht in 1944, last in the rank of a Over-staff Doctor, the Institute for virus research of the high command of the army in Krakow and typhus.[6] Deputy Director at the Cracow Institute was the next Henry Mückter, the later head of research at Grünenthal, under whose leadership the sleeping and sedative Contergan was developed.[7] The Polish biologist Rudolf Weigl from summer of 1941 in Lemberg led an offshoot of this institution.
Eyer left in April 1940 after Weigl (lice vaccine) to the spotted fever immunization at the Institute led by him produce a vaccine, which he preferred to the yolk sac vaccines. The competing products were tested by comparative trials on humans in the Buchenwald concentration camp to clarify their effectiveness.[9] Eyer visited together with the MC Bernhard Schmidt of the army health on February 8, 1943 the spot fever experimental station of the hygiene Institute of the Waffen-SS in the concentration camp of Buchenwald, which was led by the SS doctor Erwin Ding-Schuler:
“It is true that Dr. Eyer has visited the block 46 in Buchenwald accompanied by a different doctor.” I had the job to present the clinical records and charts of the subjects on him. About this he asked some technical to me. “In particular because of the Strophantin dosage [heart tonic]”
-The former Kapo and Chief Curator Arthur Dietzsch of spot fever station in block 46 in a statement of June 28, 1960, in the pedestrian
Eyer led to 1940 also erbbiologische factors for spot fever infections: these infections came from also “verlausten and dirt starrenden quarters spot fieberkranker Jews in Central Poland”, so there ought to be the “isolation of the Jewish ghettos”, “Against any population shifts” to the “closure of all endemic herd”, and among other things in the ‘Caftans of ghetto Jews”come to”Mass entlausungen”of those were therefore.
When the war ended, Eyer was for a short time in captivity and was interrogated by members of the army to his activities.[13] In the process of the Nuremberg doctors he issued a statutory declaration in favour of the accused Wilhelm Beiglböck on 26 February 1947.[14]
In 1946, Eyer Professor of hygiene at the University of Bonn and Director of the hygienic Institute was.[2] in 1957 moved to the University of Munich, where he worked until his retirement as Professor of hygiene and medical microbiology and Director of Max by Pettenkofer Institute 1974 Eyer.
In 1952, he was a corresponding member of the American Chemical Society.[2] Since 1957, he joined the Leopoldina.[15] From 1966 he of the American society for Microbiology and hygiene at.[2] He was also for a long time its speaker at the Wehrmedizinischen Advisory Board of the Bundeswehr and he belonged to the Federal Health Council. He chaired the Board of Trustees of the Bavarian Academy of occupational medicine and the German society for hygiene and microbiology.
In the so-called pedestrian Buchenwald was determined by the Limburg public prosecutor’s Office in 1960 against suspicious persons for murder to the fact complex spot fever attempts in the concentration camp. In the investigation, called people were included in the thing-diary, as well as in the documents submitted to the doctors trial. The procedure was discontinued mid 1961.[16] In the setting justification, it was said regarding Eyer and Schmidt, “we could have not expected, that they took something against this”.[17]
The Prussian Institute was 1935 first attached the Reich Health Office and 1942 National Institute. Individual members of the Institute participated in the inhumane human experiments in concentration camps, others held comparable positions in the (wehrwissenschaftlich oriented) science system of the Third Reich as other medical facilities of this time. Robert Koch Inst.
the “Institut für Fleckfieber- und  Virusforschung der Wehrmacht / Krakau”
 The first chief of this institute was  Prof. Dr. Herrmann Eyer
and up from 1942/43 Dr. Heinrich Mückter.
For example, in East Germany, Herman Voss became a prominent anatomist and in West Germany, Eugen Wannenmacher became a professor at the University of Münster and Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer, who had been Josef Mengele‘s mentor and sponsor, was allowed to continue his medical practice.[3][4][6]Their Nazi past was generally ignored, though some were forced to work under false names. The experiments they conducted have been cited in medical journals and sometimes republished with no reference or disclaimer as to how the research data were obtained.[3]
In turn called SS student gradeSS-Sanitätsdienstgrade (SDG)  (SDG) were as support staff allocated to the camp doctors, who acted as members of the SS in the prison medical buildings as a nurse. This student levels had completed often none or only short nursing assistant training (Medic) and had therefore only limited medical knowledge.
Hermann Christian Heinrich Emil Voss (* 13. Oktober 1894 in Berlin; † 19. Januar 1987 in Hamburg) war ein deutscher Anatom und Medizinprofessor. East Germany

Robert Herrlinger (* 24. April 1914 in Antwerpen; † 8. Februar 1968 in Kiel) war ein deutscher Anatom und Medizinhistoriker. E. Germany

Herrlinger followed the call to the Chair of history of medicine at the University of Kiel. He worked there until his death in 1968 died [4] Herrlinger of a heart attack.

Robert Herrlinger was one of the first, dealing with the history of the hospital system in teaching and research after the war in Germany. To do this, he published basic scientific contributions.Behavior during the NAZI period

In the NAZI era, Poznań under Hermann Voss and his team benefited the anatomical Institute of the University of close cooperation with the Gestapo. Made to immediate preparations after the killing of Polish prisoners and a spirited trade with skeletons and skulls evolved. Herrlinger took part even on the local executions for his Habilitation on the spleen, which he attained in 1944 to carry out seconds of later studies. In 1947, he published the findings, without to hide how he had obtained it.[6] Which 1945 Institute found, prepared with formalin corpses in Poznań on torture.[7][8]
Franz Reinhold[1] Schwede, ab 1934 Schwede-Coburg (* 5. März 1888 in Drawöhnen im Kreis Memel, Ostpreußen; † 19. Oktober 1960 in Coburg) war ein nationalsozialistischer Politiker und wurde in Coburg am 28. August 1930 als erster Parteigenosse Bürgermeister einer kreisfreien Stadt. Von 1934 bis 1945 war er Gauleiter der NSDAP in Pommern. 5 years.
 Dr. Heinrich Berning -death?

An associate professor at Hamburg University, Berning lead the  “famine experiments” on Soviet prisoners. While the prisoners starved to death,  he observed their bodily functions degrade; this included loss of libido,  dizziness, headaches, edema and swelling of the lower abdomen (Annas &  Grodin, 1992). Berning then published his results after the war.

SS-Hauptsturmführer Ferdinand Berning,  Adjutant des Reichsarztes-SS (Nazi dr adjutant) Born 1907.

Concentration camp dr. Scant info.

Carl Oskar Klipp (Born May 28 1898 in Marburg; date of death unknown) was a German doctor.

in 1936 he became head of the District Office for public health in Munich and head of the Reich Association of medicinal plants. Since 1937 he was Deputy Reich physician of the Hitler youth. He performed military service in 1940, and has been missing ever since.


Josef Erber (to 1944 Josef Houstek) (* 16 October 1897 in Ottendorf Austria Hungary Ҡ 1987) and member of the camp Gestapo in the concentration camp Auschwitz. Arrived in Auschwitz late October/early November 1940, guard, then Waffen-Meisterei for some months, mid 1942 Political Department in Auschwitz I, first Registratur, then Aufnahmeabteilung (department for taking up prisoners). In September 1942 Erber takes over the Aufnahmeabteilung of the women camp in Birkenau. Typhus between November 1942 and February 1943 and in hospital. After that he joined the Political Department of Auschwitz III, at the end of March 1943 director of the Aufnahmeabteilung in the women camp again. October 1943 РApril 1944 he was the director of the Aufnahmeabteilung of the whole camp.

Willibald Holblinger who is mentioned as a war crime suspect by Richard Boech, was exonerated, and gave testimony on what he saw at the camp.ärarzt
Karl Brunner (born January 8, 1908 in Munich, † unknown) was an SS doctor .Brunner worked as a senior doctor in Munich and was established on 1 May 1937 as a physician in the hospitals Hohenlychen set. There he was promoted to deputy in 1943 by Karl Gebhardt. [1] He was promoted in 1945 to a quiet Obersturmbannführer. After the Second World War Brunner in Bavaria, led an orthopedic physician practice.

General  Siegfried  Mummenthey
World War II, he was then on 1 September 1940 military staff in the economic order of the High Command of the Army at IG farben. The war ended in 1945, he lived in Berlin. He fled from there to Osterode in the Harz Mountains, where he then lived as a textile merchant.  d. 1976

– Gen. d. Inf Hermann Reinecke 1.1.44-15.3.45. Convicted but released, 1954.
d. 1973.  This personal appointee of what Hitler placed as responsible for insuring the security of prisoner of war installations in Germany and the most effective employment of prisoner of war labor.


Chief of Prisioner of War / chief of the prisoners of war being (Chief Kriegsgef)
The administrative head of all matters relating to both Deutsch and Allied prisoners to
of war.
– GL Hans von Graevenitz 1.4.43-1.4.44
– GM Adolf Westhoff 1.4.44-5.45

-Friedrich Ernst, and if anyone held that title after Heinz Kalkstein.

-Cleansing the Fatherland: Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene (ISBN-13: 9780801848247) by the political scientist / historian / journalist Gotz Aly
This book includes some of these names:

U Vienna, Nazi and anatomist, Dr Eduard Pernkopf d 1955 . Later it was discovered that these universities received remains and skeletons from camp. Would not that make him complicit in war crimes?
Professor Hermann Voss continued his anatomy career d in 1987 after the war. He had appointments in Halle (1948-1952), Jena (1952-1962) and subsequently, as professor emeritus at the Greifswald anatomical institute. Voss also coauthored a textbook of anatomy, Handbook of Anatomy, it was probably the most popular anatomical textbook ever published in Germany. The book appeared in 17 Deutsch-language editions, as well as in Spanish and Polish editions.
Source: Jewish Virtual Library

Following the establishment of the Reich University of Posen, Voss served as director of the anatomy institute. Under Voss experiments on both Jews and Poles became commonplace and indeed Voss became notorious for his anti-Polish sentiment, writing in his diaries that “the Polish people must be eradicated”. [3] By this time Voss had become a convinced follower of the Nazi ideology, with his diaries revealing a strong current of anti-Semitism and anti-communism. [4]

Whilst in this role he made a deal with the local Gestapo Allowing them to use his incinerators in return for the use of some of the bodies of those executed by hanging or decapitation. Voss also had a sideline selling the skulls and death masks of Jews and Poles, with the Natural History Museum’s curator Josef Wastl being his leading customer for this Particular service. [5] Along with colleagues such as Robert Herrlinger ,  Voss undertook preparation work for this trade as soon as the victims had been killed. [3]

Dr Robert Herlinger, d, 1968. Herrlinger studied medicine until 1938 at the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg and art history until 1941 at the University of Jena, where he worked at this time as an Assistant at the Institute for Anatomy and Physiology . Under Hermann Voss he worked the from October 1942 as Assistant at the anatomical Institute University Poznan.
Josef Wastl, Curator

The dean of the medical department of the Reich University of Pozen was the Deutsch anatomist Professor Dr. Hermann Voss (1894-1987). Skeletons were ordered by Dr. Josef Wastl, the head of the anthropology department of the Vienna museum.

St.Arzt *** (Berb. Beauftr.d.S In) Dr. Finger

Armed Forces Surgeon General / Chief of Wehrmachtsanitatswesens (Head W San)
Subordinate to the Chief of the OKW and in medical matters, to the Commissioner General of Medicine and Sanitation (Major General Commissioner of the vehicle and the Sanitat health care system). The Armed Forces Surgeon General also formerly held the positions of Chief Army Medical Inspector (Insp San H) and Army Surgeon (doctor H).

– Prof. Dr. GenObStabarzt Siegfried Handloser (executed for war crimes)

Deputy Chief of Wehrmachtsanitatswesens, Wehrmacht doctors
– Genlazt*Paul Wurfl 31.8.42-00.06.45

Military Medical Academy, Berlin
01.05.1934 – 25.08.1939 Colonel Doctor / Gen.Arzt (01/03/37) MD. Rudolf Gunderloch
25.08.1939 – 01.08.1944 char. Gen.Arzt (27/08/39) / Gen.Arzt z.V. (1:10:41) / Gen.St.Arzt z.V. (3 / 43) Richard Hamann
01.08.1944 – 01.03.1945 Gen.Arzt / Gen.St.Arzt (9:11:44) MD.

Walther Asal (d. 1987)
01/03/1939 Ob.St.A. *Dr Friedrich Reich

The Pépinière (“nursery”) was established on 2 August 1795 in Berlin as an institution for training and further education of military surgeons. The – more technically oriented – second surgeon school in Berlin, which in addition to the Charité Thus
October 1, 1934: Military Medical Academy as Reopened
1944 – Relocation of the Medical Academy in Wroclaw
1945: Closure Of The Academy


Hans Diedrich Cremer, so Hans-Dietrich (* 14 February 1910 in Kiel, d. April 18 1995 in Giessen). What a Deutsch nutritional physiologist In 1936, Cremer was employed in Berlin at the Institute of Physiological Chemistry at the Medical Academy and Addition was a member of the “surgical Panel of the Supreme Command of the army”. [2] During the Second World War he set up the mountain Physiological Institute in St. Johann in Tirol from 1942 and headed the Army Mountain Medical School there. As MC, Cremer took part in the meeting on medical issues in distress and winter death on 26 and 27 February 1942 in Nuremberg, where was spoke about the “hypothermia” experiments in the Dachau concentration camp. [3]
Cremer what Professor Emeritus in 1975 and died in 1995

Senior Military doctor Prof. Dr. Heinrich Kliewe (associate professor of bacteriology and hygiene in Giessen) on 13.01.1941 which to handle all aspects of biological war on the MA (Military Medical Academy) and at the same time as a consultant to H. San.In. And what wa ordered to test 9 (gas protection department / office group for development and testing / HWA). Kliewe, d. 1969 (acc. to

Professor Dr. Hermann Stieve (1886-1952) was a leading anatomist at the University of Berlin and the Berlin Charité Hospital who exploited the killing programs of the Third Reich to conduct studies on the female reproductive system When a woman of reproductive age was to be executed by the Gestapo, Stieve was informed, a date of execution was decided upon, and the prisoner told the scheduled date of her death. Stieve then studied the effects of the psychic trauma on the doomed woman’s menstrual pattern. Upon the woman’s execution, her pelvic organs were removed for histological (tissue) examination. Stieve published reports based on those studies without hesitation or apology.

After the war, Stieve lectured medical students on studies he had conducted on the migration of human sperm, studies performed on women raped before their deaths in Gestapo execution chambers. Stieve discussed in this research before appalled but silent audience of medical students in East Berlin. (Russian scientists reportedly sought out Stieve’s research after the war.10) Stieve served as dean of the Faculty of Medicine of Humbolt University, the East Berlin successor to the University of Berlin. A lecture room and a sculpture of his bust were dedicated in his honor at the Berlin Charité Hospital.

SS Captain Hans-Joachim Geiger (02/07/1913 Liebenstein), worked as a doctor in Neuengamme, Mauthausen and Ebensee before his being “camp doctor” in Flossenbuerg with “satellite camps”. For his crimes he was sentenced in Ebensee in Dachau (U.S.) on 20.05.1947 to 20 years in Landsberg, released on 23/03/1954. After that general practitioner in Coburg.

Dr. Karl Böhmichen (* 31.05.1912 in Rheine Westphalia, + 07.14.1964) what “camp doctor” in Sachsenhausen, Neuengamme, Mauthausen and Flossenburg. After the war he was head physician in a sanatorium for heart diseases in the district of Büdingen

Surgeon General of the reserve Prof. * [should be on  page one ] Dr. Ernst Rodenwaldt, professor in ordinary (hygiene, eugenics, tropical diseases) in Heidelberg. Advisory in tropical medicine / H San In.http: / / / viewtopic.php t = 43 351?
Surgeon General of the reserve Prof. Dr. Heinrich Zeiss, professor in ordinary (hygiene, eugenics, tropic diseases) Charité Berlin ..

Commanders of the Academy
Surgeon General Dr. Rudolf Gunderloch (1885-1962),  was released from pw camp in 1950, and diedin 1962. , 1885-1962, was released from pw camp in 1950, and diedin 1962.
Surgeon general Dr. Richard Hamann (1868-1956), 25 August 1939 to 1stärarzt

Surgeon general, Dr. Walther Asal (1891-1987), first August 1944 to 1st March 1945
Use after 1945

Mattner, Walter. SS Lieutenant (1941)
* 31.12.1904 Langenwang. 1940 in Mauthausen concentration camp doctor.
After 1945, doctor in M **** in Austria.

Meyer, George. Physician and SS First Lieutenant (1943).
* 09.05.1917 Vienna. 1940 Leibstandarte-SS Adolf Hitler in 1942 in Auschwitz-Birkenau,
1943 in Hertogenbosch in vugh, possibly Stutthof near Gdansk.
After 1945 Family Practice in Vienna

Gross, Karl-Josef. SS Stubaf, doctor
* 12.12.1907 Bad Vellach in Carinthia. SS Sturmbannführer (BDC). From 05/01/1942 SS Hygiene Institute in Berlin, from June 1942 officially at the Robert Koch Hospital Vienna. 1942/1943 trials of vaccines (typhoid, cholera) of Behringwerke in more than a thousand prisoners in the Mauthausen concentration camp to death. Results at the third lecture on 24.05.1943 on the Working Meeting of the Advisory Medical Academy of Military Medicine. 1943 Head of Bacteriology at the Central Institute for Research on Cancer (biological warfare) in Poznan-Nesselstedt.
Practice after 1945 in Linz. + 1.1.1967

Fischer, Karl Josef SS concentration camp doctor and Captain
* 03.14.1904 Graz. Dr. jur med et. A surgeon. 1940 Auschwitz camp doctor. 1942 in Sachsenhausen and Majdanek. Died in 1990’s.

Paul Wels (born February 2, 1890 in inland forest, county Goldap in East Prussia; † 1 July 1963 in Offenbach am Main; full name: Bruno Paul Wilhelm catfish) was a Deutsch Pharmacologist, and radiation biology. He served from 1928 to 1958 as professor and director of the institute at the University of Greifswald and was honored for his research, Which focuses on the radiation biology, which recorded in 1938 including the Leopoldina. According to the military doctor Wolfgang Wirth and British intelligence, he will be during the period of National Socialism in projects, including human trials, have been involved with chemical warfare agents.

Paul Wels was born in 1890 in the East Prussian inland forest and graduated after attending the grammar school to study medicine in Insterburg at the University of Königsberg. He graduated in 1917 with a thesis on the influence of epinephrine on the renal activity at the University of Kiel, where he earned a PhD degree in 1924, Professor of Medicine. From 1928 he served in succession by Otto Riesser as director of the Pharmacology Institute of the University of Greifswald.

After the handover of power to the Nazis  Paul Wels 1933 member of the SA and later he joined the National Socialist Flying Corps. He also belonged to the Nazi Teachers’ League and the NSI. During the Second World War he was active in personal union at the Institute of Pharmacology and Wehrtoxologie the Berlin Academy of Military Medicine. According to the military doctor Wolfgang Wirth said to have been involved in attempts to combat substance Lost, so the project of the DFG “treatment of mustard damage in irradiated protein solutions.” According to the UK intelligence service, he should have done well “poison gas experiments on volunteers allegedly”. [1]

After the Second World War he was first released in 1946 from the professorship. Two years later he was able to resume his academic career at the University of Greifswald, but again, where he worked until 1958th He died in 1963 in Offenbach am Main.

The research interests of Paul Wels: Particularly the effects of X-radiation on various cells and of ultraviolet radiation on the skin, as well as the pharmacological effect of irradiated substances. Among his students at Greifswald including Kurt Repke, d. 2001, Peter Holtz  d. 1970

Controversial in his work is documented only in recent times closer collaboration with the anatomist  * Dr August Hirt who conducted experiments with mustard gas on inmates of Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp during World of War II from 1942nd. It is assumed that Peter Holtz most likely had knowledge of Hirt’s human experiments while his direct participation can not be practically ruled out.

and student, Fritz Markwardt., d 2011, he received his MD after the war.

Fritz Markwardt was born in 1924 in Magdeburg [2] and studied, after serving in the Navy, at the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, both pharmacy and medicine. [3] In 1951 he became the scientific and MD degree in 1960. [4] with a thesis on “Studies on hirudin” he received in 1956 under Paul * Sels, Habilitation at the University of Greifswald, [4], where he first Subsequently to the faculty of Pharmacy and in 1960 appointed Professor of Pharmacology. [2] The following year he moved to the Medical Academy Erfurt, where, he held until 1991, then a professor of pharmacology and served as director of the Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, [2] Which focus on Haemostasis coined it in these three decades . [5] He died in 2011 in Erfurt.

Need* Dr Friedrich [Frederick?] Holtz!

Paul Sels from 1938 belonged to the Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina Deutsch in 1955 and was a regular member of the Deutsch Academy of Sciences in Berlin. In the years 1953/1954 he served as chairman of the Deutsch Pharmacological Society, Which appointed him also as an honorary member.

Karin Huppertz, nurse (born 24 May 1894 in Pirmasens, † 19 May 1978 in Munich) was a Deutsch. She was a member of the Nazi sisterhood, director of the Professional Committee for sister being in the working group of independent charities and writing head of the Student Council, published magazine and the yearbook of nursing during the period of National Socialism.

(Nazi medical publications).

Youth and career to 1930

Karin Karolina Maria Helena Huppertz was on 24 May 1894 in Born as a subsidiary of the contractor and architect William Huppertz and his wife Paula in Pirmasens. According to their own information as to Huppertz that trained interpreter and nurse. During the First World War it was used as a nurse and was then worked again in Pirmasens. She moved to an unknown date in Berlin.

Activities during the period of National Socialism [edit] From the Federation of Reichsfachschaft Deutsch sisters and nurses, Which included the Catholic community of sisters in Germany, the diaconate community, the Red Cross sister community, the professional association of free sisters and the sister community of the National Socialist People’s Welfare (NS Sisterhood) was founded in 1936, the technical committee for sister being in the Association of independent charities. The committee should work on all aspects of nursing association-being. The direction of the Committee Erich Hilgenfeldt which transferred, at his side stood the Reich Women’s Leader Gertrud Scholtz-Klink. The management was transferred to the National Socialist Sisterhood organized Huppertz. [1] This position had Huppert Decisive influence on the development of the nursing profession, its ethical positioning during the Nazi regime and vocational training. [2] The amendment of the Nursing Act ForwardOperatingCurrent and designed in 1940 in collaboration with Hans Harmsen the nursing service book, Which served as a standardization of the level of nursing schools.

Huppertz worked as executive director of the magazine with the Deutsch nurse. The magazine was created after the forced recruitment of all other journals in nursing by the end of 1933 as the official journal of the Deutsch Reichsfachschaft sisters, in 1936 it was renamed. The Reich Health Leader Leonardo Conti and Scholtz-Klink transferred Huppertz the main editors of the magazine. In addition, Huppertz was appointed from 1938 to 1942 for the publication of the yearbook from 1940 Head of Nursing and thus for the yearbook for infant and children’s nurses. It was for her editorial responsibility for all within the period of National Socialism appeared professional and political writings. In 1940 she was co-author of the book guide for vocational education in schools of nursing.

Life after 1945

Huppertz was on 3 February 1948 because of “failure to register” their NSDAP membership sentenced to a fine, she moved in September 1949 to Bretten, before 1950, only to Munich in October 1951 and moved to Coburg. In 1953 she returned to Munich, where he worked at the deer-hospital and was in 1954 or early 1955 registered unemployed. In spring 1955 she married in 1954, released from prison Oskar Schroeder, the former chief of Medical Services of the Air Force Deutsch was convicted in the Nuremberg doctors’ trial for crimes against humanity. Huppertz died on 19 May 1978 in Munich.

Hans Harmsen (born May 5, 1899 in Berlin-Charlottenburg; † 5 July 1989 in Bendestorf) was a Deutsch social hygiene, and population scientists. By the end of the Second World War, he ran for the purposes of eugenics Nazi rulers. After 1945 he became a professor at the University of Hamburg. He was co-founder, president and honorary president of Planned Parenthood, finally.

2] By 1942 he was also managing director of the Association of Public Health, before joining the Army as armored division on advisory hygienists worked in the East. [2] 1939 Harmsen was habilitated at the University of Berlin * with the theme of the possibilities and limits of eugenics. He continued to argue racial hygiene, but according to Schleiermacher was not [3] prepared to go to the “euthanasia”, he had “indexed eugenic abortion” as well as patient rejected murder. However, he accepted the racially motivated anti-Semitism, because he saw no contradiction to Christianity.

Harmsen 1946 took over the management of the Institute for Hygiene and Environment in Hamburg and became professor of general and social hygiene at the University of Hamburg. He also was chairman of the Deutsch 1952 Society for Population Studies and in 1953 president of the *German Academy for Population Studies . These associations served as science journalist Ludger Wess said, [4] “as a catch basin and network of the leaders of Nazi racial and population biology.”

It says men were accused of ” death bath actions” (Totbadeaktionen”) in Austrian-held trials after the war.

Results presented of the research project “The Robert Koch Institute under National Socialism”

Press release

Academics from the Institute for the History of Medicine of the Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin undertook research on the history of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) under the National Socialist regime. The results of the project, which was initiated and funded by RKI, were presented on 1 October 2008 at a public event. Given its central position in public health administration between 1935 and 1942 and its role as part of the Reich Health Office, the Institute was heavily involved in the National Socialist policy of force. “The infringement of humanist principles, the violation of human dignity and of the right to freedom from bodily harm can never be justified at any time in the world even when the majority tolerates and even condones behaviour of this kind”, warned RKI President Jörg Hacker after the results had been presented.

These evil deeds should never be forgotten. They are documented in academic publications and in the monograph on the research results (“The Robert Koch Institute under National Socialism”, Kulturverlag Kadmos, Berlin, 2008). Furthermore, there will be some form of commemoration and remembrance on the site of the Robert Koch Institute. Details of the design and exact spot are not yet available but planning is already underway. “The most important lesson to be learned here is that everyone must stand up and be counted. We must never accept discrimination and emotional brutalisation, protection of perpetrators or a distinction between valuable and less valuable human beings”, stressed Jörg Hacker.

The project, which was launched in 2006, took a comprehensive and independent look for the first time at the scientific, political and politico-scientific actions of Robert Koch Institute under National Socialism. A commission made up of internationally renowned historians was the guarantee for the academic independence and quality of the research programme. Volker Hess from the Institute for the History of Medicine of the Charité – University Medicine Berlin was the Chairman of the commission and project coordinator.

The fact that RKI scientists and external research scientists attached to Robert Koch Institute had been involved in inhuman experiments in concentration camps and psychiatric institutions was already known. However, the research project revealed a series of new names. What emerged in the course of the project was the almost complete penetration of RKI research topics and staff by Nazi ideology. Following a wave of dismissals three months after the Nazis came to power in 1933, RKI lost almost all its mid-level scientists and, by extension, innovative research institutions and scientific cooperation. The scientists were forced to emigrate and one even had to go into hiding for a while. The senior management level was also restructured. After a few years the director and almost all heads of department were party members.

No cases of individuals showing moral courage or protests against the state, institutional or individual actions were found. From the certificates of employment issued, the medicine historians primarily identified efforts to smooth the path of staff to new positions, in most cases abroad, by giving them a positive assessment. “We had hoped to find traces of more courage being shown”, said Jörg Hacker.

Further information (in German):

Date: 01.10.2008



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