The Black Book; Babi Yar

The Black Book of Soviet Jewry, Vassily Grossman and Ilya Ehrenburg, eds.

Recently translated, materials previously censored restored.


With the support of the Soviet Jewish Antifascist Committee he with the equally great writer, Vasily Grossman, enlisted some twenty-four reporters to gather eyewitness accounts of the hideous torture and murder of Soviet Jews, captured Red Army soldiers and communists. This present edition, the English translation of the original 1993 edition was first published in 2002.

By the end of 1942, 1.4 million Jews had been killed by the Einsatzgruppen that followed the German army eastward; by the end of the war, nearly **two million had been murdered in Russia and Eastern Europe. Of the six million Jews who perished in the Holocaust, about one-third fell in the territories of the USSR.

“[The Complete Black Book of Russian Jewry] can claim to be the most complete of all: it contains the full “official” text as well as all the materials that Soviet censorship excised in the main accounts of local collaboration. It is a translation of the Russian text published in Vilnius in 1993 (although without the photo-documentation of that edition). In this edition, materials that were removed by the censor are included in brackets.”

Das Schwarzbuch – Der Genozid an den sowjetischen Juden Wassili Grossman (Herausgeber), Ilja Ehrenburg (Herausgeber), Arno Lustiger

The Black Book of Soviet Jewry Eng. trans from Russian David Patterson (Editor, Translator), Helen Segall (Introduction), Irving Louis Horowitz (Foreword)

Das Schwarzbuch – der Genozid an den sowjetischen Juden, Vasilly Grossman  & Ilya Ehrenberg The full text was 1st published in Germany, 1994

souce:, Ilya Ehrenburg. Sorry for the google trans from German.

At the suggestion of Albert Einstein, the Jewish anti-Fascist Committee started since summer of 1943 to collect documents over the murder of the Jews in the occupied Soviet Union, which should be published in a black book. Ehrenburg was Chairman of the literary Committee formed for this purpose. After calling arrived and others in the Urdu-language newspaper Ejnikejt a not torrent by witnesses. You were spotted some part of the literary Commission, by the Committee itself, and a selection was prepared for printing. There was controversy: the Committee conducted a number of documents in the United States next, what significantly complicated the simultaneous publication in the United States, United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union without knowledge Ehrenburgs. In the wake of this conflict, Ehrenburg 1945 withdrew from the editors and the parts completed by him provided the Committee. Also the procedure for preparing for printing was also controversial. At a meeting of the literary Commission on October 13, 1944, Ehrenburg was the principle of the documentation:If you receive such a letter report, you forget everything, what the author wanted to express; Maybe cut him some in length, and only limited editing, that I’ve made to the documents. […] Is a document of interest, then you must leave it unchanged, it is less interesting, to put it aside and look to the other…[53]

Wassili Grossman, who later took over from Ehrenburg the editorial staff of the black book, saw the task of the book, however, is to speak on behalf of the victims: “in the name of people… who can lie under the Earth and not talking”.[54]But more and more objections to the project put forward by political instances of the Soviet Union; the most important was that the fate of the Jews will highlighted disproportionate compared to the other people. in 1947, Grossman managed to finish the last sentence of the book. But according to the expression of 33 of the 42 sheet prevented the censorship authority Glawlit the continuation of pressure and had finally destroy the finished set. As a result, the manuscript of the black book served as material for lawsuits against officials of the Jewish anti-Fascist Committee (but not against the editors of Ehrenburg and Grossman) due to nationalist tendencies. It could appear in the Soviet Union and until 1980 in an Israeli Publisher (here the reports from Lithuania were missing however).

The first complete edition was published in 1994 in the German language. She relied mainly on the proofs of Grossman’s of 1946 and 1947, which could make available to Irina Ehrenburg.The black book contains a total of 118 documents which were prepared 37 from Ehrenburg to print. They range from simple letters and diaries from eyewitnesses and survivors to comprehensive reports from writers who were created on the basis of interviews and other materials. Much of Ehrenburgs material belongs to the former, the latter about Oserows great review about Babi Yar or Grossman’s text about the extermination camp of Treblinka. Great importance was attached to naming as possible precise data, names and addresses – the name of the German perpetrators could be verified in 1994 almost consistently, as well almost all information about the data and figures of the extermination actions, as shown in the footnotes of the translator. The material is arranged according to the republics of the USSR: Ukraine, Belo Russia, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia. Finally follow a report on Soviet citizens who had helped Jews, a section about the extermination camp on Polish soil (which contains a report about the battle of the Warsaw ghetto), as well as a section with statements of the captured “Hangman” (as the chapter title).The reports capture the stages of Nazi terror in ever new places: from registration to the everyday sadism of particularly feared SS or Gestapo men up to the organized “actions”, which aimed at total annihilation. The cruel acts of Latvian, Ukrainian or Baltic German help police forces or the Romanian authorities in Transnistria are also detained – and away largely edited by the censors in the correction versions because they weakened the “force of the main accusation directed against the Germans”, [55]. The rapporteurs, many attitudes are represented: some long could not believe that the Nazis wanted to wipe out the Jews actually, others did this at an early stage; Some are captured by paralyzing horror that some resolution to the violent issues.

Nazis at  Babi Yar. Trans. with Google.

Hans Karl Schumacher (* June 12, 1907 in barmen, died September 16, 1992 in Kassel) was a German jurist, SS-Sturmbannführer, crime Council, head of the Gestapo in Kiev and Stalino, and after the second world war the Gehlen organization.

The camp was built in June 1942 at the suggestion of Dr. Hans Karl Schumacher, a Nazi police official in Kiev, which he made to his superior. Erich Ehrlinger. The camp was intended to house persons perceived as opponents of the Nazis, mainly Jews.

For Border Police School Pretzsch he was an instruction from the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA) on 1 November 1940 offset, namely the Department of Bad Schmiedeberg. By May 1941 he had there, the task of leading the supervision of the teaching environment, himself the subject Criminal taught. [5] He prepared in the course, which lasted eight weeks, reservists of the Waffen SS in the service of Gestapo and the criminal before. A course covers while 400 men of the SS during the first course was taught by the beginning of January 1941, the second course began then to March. These SS men, however, were already prepared to serve in the Einsatzgruppen of the Security Police and SD. [6] Because of a disease of the vocal cords in the larynx Schumacher broke from his service in Bad Schmiedeberg and traveled back to Prague.   Command in the Einsatzgruppe C [edit]   After successful treatment, he was on 1 June 1941 Duisburg added, where he should be working in the criminal investigation, the inspection head. In Essen, he took the position of a representative of the criminal division. In late October / early November 1941 was to use his Abkommandierung Group C in Kiev. On 9 November 1941 he traveled from it from eating from the Reich Commissariat Ukraine in the rank of SS-Hauptsturmführer. [7] In Kiev, he was ordered by the SS Group Leader Max Thomas as head of Einsatzgruppe C and Commander of the Security Police and SD (Security Office) of Ukraine , a Division IV / V build the CID. Official he was going to the Security Office and the task force assumed 5 (EK 5). From ethnic German and Ukrainian militias and other forces on the one hand, the police unit until end of December 1941 reached a strength of about 150 men after this goal was Schumacher a vacation of 26 December to 20th January 1942.   Gestapo chief in Kiev [Edit]   Thomas confronted him now with a new task, which was associated with the fight against partisans in context. Schumacher tried in vain to point out that as a criminalist for such tasks is not suitable. Schumacher had since learned that such an action would also be directed against Jews. [8] Schumacher finally gave in because he liked Thoma detachment upon the arrival of a representative. Schumacher took up his new office in the Melnikastraße in Kiev at SS Obersturmbannführer August Meier in the EK 5th Meier resulted largely from the ongoing management tasks, while Schumacher took over the duties of the State Police and some of the criminal police.   Liquidation of Jews [Edit]   His duties included the arrest and liquidation of all displayed Jews who were in the prison in the Karolenkastraße admitted 33 in Kiev. To this end, it is a group of about 20 men was available. For the purpose of execution was a requested by Schumacher gas vans to avoid shootings. [9] In the next four weeks with Schumacher to make three to four gasification applications where about 120 people were killed, including about 100 Jews in women and children.   Mid February 1942 arrived in Kiev SS-Obersturmbannführer Erich Ehrlinger who established the department of Commander of the Security Police and SD (KdS). Schumacher was by Ehrlinger appointed Head of Divisions IV and V of the Criminal Investigation Department of the Gestapo. Service in that capacity, he signed the execution lists and had them confirmed. In the coming weeks, Schumacher participated in eight to ten executions in which about 280 to 350 people were killed. Of these, at least 70 Jews and women with at least three children. Schumacher shot dead while at least 25 people, including two children. He justified his personal commitment to the fact that he was the guilty to his subordinates. [10]   To reduce the number of shootings, Schumacher reached in April 1942 that the detainees were sent to a concentration camp on the outskirts of Kiev, which was to serve as a work camp. Mintert believed that it had acted like a subcamp of Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp Syrets. There was Schumacher instruct all able-bodied persons. [11] In the summer of 1942, Schumacher holidays and reached with the assistance of the Head of Human Resources SS-Sturmbannführer *Fritz Braune in office I RSHA that he could finish his deployment in Ukraine in the near future. For now, however, he got the job after the holidays, in the Stalino KdS build there with the Divisions IV and V with. In addition, he has also been used in the fight against the guerrillas, such as the Operation Blue. In June 1942, Schumacher returned to Germany. His successor, the SS First Lieutenant Erich Wagner was (1916-1960). [12]

Command in Wroclaw [   From August 1942 to July 1943 he worked in the RSHA in the Official V as investigators and court officers in Unit ID 2 in matters of discipline of the Security Police. He also was charged with tasks in the criminal investigation department in Berlin. From July 1943 he was transferred to the criminal investigation department Wroclaw as deputy chief. From October 1944, he became head of the newly established Division V KdS Wroclaw. Since he was diagnosed with a pyelonephritis, he could still be out in March 1945 Wroclaw flown to a hospital in Nuremberg.   Postwar period [edit]   When he went to his hospital stay in Hamburg, he was arrested by the German police and the British military police. Because he claimed to have been in the Nazi period, only, if the criminal investigation, he was released. He moved to Mönchengladbach, where he was channel and construction workers. When he came under suspicion, as head of the Criminal Investigation Department in Wroclaw to have been involved in the murder of 50 officers of the Royal Air Force (see The Great Escape) in the period from March to April 1944, he was arrested again in February 1946. After several months, he was released again in August 1946 because he could not prove complicity. In Curiohaus process defending him even named as witnesses.   Clerk in the Rhineland [In the years from 1946 to 1958 he worked as a clerk in the commercial sector with companies in Moenchengladbach, Wuppertal and Darmstadt. Address book of Wuppertal it is listed until 1965 under various job titles. His last position he held in Wuppertal Pesonalchef and legal advisors. In Dusseldorf, he participated in the first 1958 November, a position as a lawyer in the legal department of the Central Association of the German property owners.

Trial and condemnation []   On 18 August 1959 reported the Ludwigsburg Central Office for war crimes charge because of its activities when KdS in Kiev. The District Court of Karlsruhe adopted on 27 August 1959 was a warrant for his arrest. The Wuppertal police took him for a first hearing on remand, the 4th of September 1959 until 13 December 1961 continued. On 20 December 1961 he was the Regional Court of Karlsruhe sentenced to four years imprisonment for the Community aid in 240 murder cases. During the trial, Schumacher admitted his crimes, which he was aware as a qualified lawyer. Karlsruhe defender Hans Ingenohl be presented at the request of Schumacher no motion for acquittal.   The revision of the judgment before the Bundesgerichtshof (BGH) was successful for procedural reasons, the sentence but remained composed. In December 1963 he was charged with the same offenses in 82 murder cases in turn sentenced to *****four years in prison. Another revision before the Supreme Court failed.   Employees in the Gehlen organization [Edit]   For the first time at the trial admitted Schumacher has been with the organization Gehlen (OG) by the year 1946 at the latest in 1956. He brought to the floor with his knowledge and activities in Prague, Wroclaw and Ukraine with the best conditions. In addition, it benefited his relations with the RSHA. A witness also confirmed in a hearing on 10 February 1960 that Schumacher had gathered in dealing with their own experiences and enemy agents. [13] What is the function and what type of activity he carried out in the Gehlen Org or *OG in the process was not discussed. ——————————–



Fritz Braune (born July 18, 1910 in Mehrstedt; died after 1973) employees in the Reich Security main office (RSHA) and Commander of Sonderkommando of Einsatzgruppe C was during the invasion of the Soviet Union.
SS career in the Third Reich
in the NSDAP (Member Nr. 498084) and on November 1, 1935, the SS (membership no. 272564) on December 1, 1931.
After the invasion of Norway in 1940 SS-Sturmbannführer Fritz  Brown worked in the security service in Oslo.
During the invasion of the Soviet Union, he was 4 b in the Einsatzgruppe C, which followed the army group South from 2 October 1941 as the successor of Günther Herrmann command guide of the Sonderkommando. So Brown played a leading role in the murder of the Jews in the occupied Ukraine. His brother, Werner Braune, the Sonderkommando led 11 b in the Einsatzgruppe D. On 21 March 1942 Fritz was replaced 4B as commando leader of the task force by Walter Haensch.[1]
Then he recorded A 4 (personal data of SD) of the RSHA the work in the Department I. On April 20, 1944, he was appointed to SS – Obersturmbannführer.
After 1945
On January 12, 1973, Fritz Braune was sentenced by the District Court of Düsseldorf to nine years in prison for taking part in the killing of Soviet Jews and mentally ill Ukrainians in Vinnitsa, Kirovograd, Poltava, Artemovsk and Gorlovka .[2]
More on Gestapo Chief Mueller:

After the war, a dictated order by Müller dated 20 April 1945 was discovered. It set out Müller’s plan for Hitler’s transportation to Barcelona, Spain. Hitler was to have been flown there by Georg Betz in a Ju 290 long-range aircraft.[23] However, neither Hitler or Betz left Berlin alive.[24]

Kaethe Hausermann, dental asst. in whose arms Georg Betz died.

“Though inconclusive on Müller’s ultimate fate, the file is very clear on one point. The Central Intelligence Agency and its predecessors did not know Müller’s whereabouts at any point after the war. In other words, the CIA was never in contact with Müller.”[18] NSA.

In 2008, the German historian Peter Longerich published a biography of Heinrich Himmler, which appeared in English translation in 2012. Longerich asserts that Müller was with Himmler at Flensburg on 11 May, and accompanied Himmler and other SS officers in their unsuccessful attempt to escape capture by the Allies and reach Bavaria on foot. Longerich states that Himmler and Müller parted company at Meinstedt, after which Müller was not seen again.[25] Longerich provides no source for this claim, which contradicts previous accounts of Müller’s disappearance. The source for Longerich’s account appears to be the interrogation of one of Himmler’s adjutants, Werner Grothmann, the transcript of which contains references to “Müller.”[26]

In May 1945 Flensburg was the seat of the last government of Nazi Germany, the so-called Flensburg government led by Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz, which was in power from 1 May (Hitler’s death) until its dissolution on 23 May.

Gestapo Heinrich Mueller’s mistress Anna Schmid …

Werner Grothmann (23 August 1915 – 26 February 2002) One of the last to leave the bunker.


Heinz Macher (December 31, 1919 – December 21, 2001

Macher led a group of 15 SS specialists who were ordered by Heinrich Himmler to blow up the SS castle Wewelsburg near Paderborn in order to ensure that the devotional objects and important files should not fall into the hands of the Allies. The demolition command arrived on March 31, 1945. The same day, after Macher had informed the local fire brigade, the south-east tower, the least important tower of the large castle, was blown up. Because of lack of explosives they could not blow up the rest of the complex. Macher ordered the firemen not to extinguish the fire so that most of the complex was nevertheless destroyed.   Macher was also charged with the task of burying the castle’s treasures, including over 9,000 Death’s Head rings held in a shrine to commemorate SS men killed in action. These treasures have never been found.   Macher joined Himmler during his last days. He was captured together with him and Werner Grothmann on May 21 or 22, 1945.   Macher died on December 21, 2001 in Schenefeld, Pinneberg, 10 days before his 82nd birthday.

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