more natl socialists. last post


George Betz 2nd pilot

Georg Werkmann auschwitz engineer

Siegfried Kulas ek ostland

Paul Stabenow zyklon b

Hans Juettner d 1965

kz guards Dr Muermelstadt Ernst Krieck

Dr Heidenkraft red cross tour of Theresienstadt

Ludwig Klages racial science

Dr Walter Schultze d 1979

racial science Oskar Staebel

Albrecht Derichtsweiler

Gustav Adolf Scheel

Leo Poltsch d 1923 Hitler’s mentor


Schwartz bostowitsch ss searched for fms

dr werner fischer sachsenhausen

Dentist ernstt stuck

dr h pook

dr c h schroeder

Dr karl seller d69

Dr werner fischer no info sachsenhausen

heinz harmel d 2000

hermann duxnever to argentina

hans glatzel x

dr wolfgang heubner

dr karl dohmen

Wilhelm schallmeyer d 1919 eugenics

ernst stuck d74

fritz blumenstein

dentist ernst kees

Heinz karl fanslau d 87

ss pl Kopkow d 96

friedrich buchardt d 82, zionists collaborated with national socialists to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine Israeli who promoted Eugenics policies similar to nazis Priest who helped the nazis

Heinrich Kori, cremation …Auschwitz. Was located in Berlin. NO more info.

Judea declares war on germany  daily express article coaims that Wallenburg’s uncle had funded Hitler, allegedly. Haavara transfer agreement association  of ger natl jews

Max Neumann d 39 german  vanguard natsoc jews hj schoeps d 80 ernst niekisch

United steel works deutsch, IG Farben Siemens de, Osram Walter C  Teagle

GA westrick Paul Warburg  Gerard Swope and Philip of Hesse are alleged to have had  ties to the reich

Hermann Esser vp reichstag d. 1981

Otto Bovensiepen deports on iews (frg 1968 drehers law)

Eduard Dreher

Hans Heidrich Eggebrecht

Else krueger b 1915 bormann’s  secretary

Kkarl Jesco v puttkamer burnt Hitler’s papters

Heinz Krueger Werner Schmiedel burned Adolf Hitler


Karl guenther v hase b 17

phillip grimm d84

aigf dr helmut magers praised FDR’s new deal

osram funded naziss

putzi hanfstaengl  reichstag fire

Friedrich burkhardt vork moskau d 82 chelmno ek b lodz

erhard krueger d 82

hans krueger kl zonnenberg

Hans thomsen d 68

leo burkner d 75

dr heinrich albert k 44

“Wall st and rise of hitler” anthony C Sutton claims that German big business and Wall St funded the rise of Hitlerism

Henry ashby turner

Hans kuhne d 69

vermittungstelle w and igf german war industry, destroyed records

dr ernst struss

william von rath aeg



table of contents: Use the search


I’d like to remind you that in order to leave a comment, you don’t have to leave your email address. One or two of the pages may be in a slightly different order than shown.


NEW info added :


**Nov 2012, Nazis


*IKL, 2 ,

NEW :the-reichenau-order/

**Yugoslavia, Hitler


**Holocaust, business, and Hitler

**More on Nazis, August 2012

**Man who advised Hitler



**More on Nazi medicine, part 2

**More on nazi medicine


**Polish report to the UN on the Holocaust

Drs at Mauthausen- Gusen

more-nazis-wannsee conference follow up


More on Nazis and the Red Cross

*Auschwitz, More

*Auschwitz, Part 2

More on the national socialist era

*New info on Auschwitz

*Jan 2012, Research


*resistance to nazis
*Robert Ley; Lithuanian Hiwis
Fate of Nazis 4
Fate of Nazis 3
Fate of Nazis
Fate of Nazis, 2
notes, nazi collaborators show
Eichmann’s Men
German Legal Profession and nazis

more Nazis, 2
More Nazis, Euthanasia
More Nazis, summer 2011
More Nazis Gestapo/SD
More nazis
Hitler on the Holocaust
Institute for research on the Jewish Question
May 2011
BBC on the Holocaust, part two
BBC, part one
March/April comments, 2011
Red Cross; Eichmann
More proof that Hitler knew
The Church and the Holocaust
More Nazis V/ Mufti
Church and Holocaust part 2
Holocaust in Hungary; Intl Red Cross; Himmler’s Speeches
Auschwitz Trial
more evidence of the Holocaust
On Denial
Post-war Nazi careers (more nazis 1)
More Nazis 2
More Nazis 3
More Nazis, IV

Nazi Drs. part one
Nazi Drs, part two
Dr von Verschuer, et al.
Yugoslavia 1
Yugoslavia, 2
Yugoslavia, 3

Ian Kershaw on Hitler
Original Documents on the Holocaust

Adolf Hitler, the Long shadow of Evil.
Himmler and the Holocaust
Hitler knew
Laurence Rees, Auschwitz
Let’s demolish Holocaust denial
More July comments
July comments
August Comments

blog comments
blog comments 2
Baltics, holocaust
Kammler plans for Auschwitz

Hitler orders destruction of Germany
Auschwitz Album
Some Nazis who survived
More on Auschwitz Birkenau. IG Farben
Hitler ordered Holocaust
Jasenovac; Waldheim
Der Spiegel

Auschwitz Trial
Auschwitz news

Euthanasia, a. B.
Blog comments*
Speer and Kammler
Kammler II
David Irving
Richard Evans
Anne Franck
Holocaust Order

16 pieces of evidence
Assorted info.
Grisly Forgotten Nazis
Der Process
World Knew
Korherr Report

Browse My WebRings


NEW: more names found: Auschwitz Central Building office.

Hitler’s nazi killer police. Very disturbing, graphic. Be forewarned, yet it is necessarily to know what these nazis did.


On November 28, 1941, Hitler officially received al-Husseini in Berlin. Hitler made a declaration that after “…the last traces of the Jewish-Communist European hegemony had been obliterated… the German army would… gain the southern exit of Caucasus… the Führer would offer the Arab world his personal assurance that the hour of liberation had struck. Thereafter, Germany’s only remaining objective in the region would be limited to the Vernichtung des… Judentums [‘destruction of the Jewish element’, sometimes taken to be a euphemism for ‘annihilation of the Jews’] living under British protection in Arab lands..”[55] by Gerald-Fleming/dp/0520060229, reference 55, quoted.

Posen Speeches, wikipedia. Contains info. on Himmler’s many speeches on the Holocaust.


At Posen (occupied Poznań), hundreds of patients were killed by means of carbon monoxide gas in an improvised gas chamber developed by Dr Albert Widmann, chief chemist of the German Criminal Police (Kripo). In December 1939, the SS head, Heinrich Himmler, witnessed one of these gassings, ensuring that this invention would later be put to much wider uses.[49]]

New book, “Soldaten,” details crimes committed by Wehrmacht soldiers. In their own words, thanks to taped conversations made of them by the British military.
Dachau, Chief physician was von Weyherns. He tried in February biochemical means of detainees. For registration of the deaths were from 1 June set up a private storage registry office. Until then, the number of deaths was loud registry office of the city of Dachau on 3486 [26] people.
Dachau: In Block I, a biochemical research station was set up. Head was Emil Heinrich Schütz  (born April 12, 1906 in Schmiedeberg) was a German physician and participated in human experiments in the Nazi concentration camps.He survived the war unharmed and settled in 1947 in Essen as a specialist for internal medicine. Only in December 1972 he was before the District Court of Munich II (AZ 12 KS 1/72) accused because of his experiments. A number of “Persilscheine”, which he presented to his discharge, proved in the process convenience products. On November 20, 1975, he was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment. Doctors certified him a serious illness so that he had to not fulfill his sentence.
Dr. Ernst Heinrich Schmidt (March 27, 1912 – † November 28, 2000) was a German physician and SSHauptsturmführer, employed in a variety of Nazi concentration camps during World War II. He was tried in 1947 and 1975 for complicity in war crimes, but was acquitted both times.
note: I’m sorry for the sometimes poor quality of google transl. from German and other languages. However, I felt that it was impt to collect this information to prove conclusively that the Fed’l Republic of Germany, along with other gov’ts, failed to pursue nazi criminals to the fullest extent of the law. The escape of so many nazi doctors from justice, or the failure to prosecute them in the first place, is especially galling.
Hans Gustav Felber (born July 8, 1889 in Wiesbaden, Germany – March 8, 1962 in Frankfurt am Main) was a German General der Infanterie in the second world war.Alleged involvement in war crimes. The deportation of Polish Jews from the Lodz ghetto was ordered by Felber as then Chief of staff of the eighth army, before the command was issued by Reinhard Heydrich. This shows that the Wehrmacht was at an early stage leader involved in the persecution of Jews.The army group was responsible after the company Anton Felber of the defenses in the previously under the sole control of Vichy France. While Felbers troops were involved in the deportation of Jews from Marseille and the evacuation and destruction of the waterfront in January 1943.
Against Felber, a discovery method for breach of international law on hostage killings in Serbia was in 1949 initiated before the District Court of Frankfurt/M., which was not continued.
Franz Albrecht Medicus (Born 18 December 1890 in Strasbourg; died 5 July 1967 in Wiesbaden) was a German jurist. Involved in writing the Nurnberg Laws. Early on, Buchenwald administrators learned through the prisoner grapevine about Dr Katzen-Ellenbogen’s helpfulness to the Gestapo in France. source: “War on the Weak,” Edwin Black.
SS Werner Fricke, d. 1988, Buchenwald Camp Political director.
 born 30.6. 1908, SSnr. 52183. he worked at Lichtenburg till the  camp moved to Buchenwald in 1937 and there he was registrar (standesbeamter).

Robert Roessle aka Robert Rössle (* August 19 1876 in Augsburg , † November 21 1956 in Berlin ) was a German pathologist .

In the era of National Socialism was Rössle Associate Editor of Human heredity and constitutional doctrine. August 1942 he called Adolf Hitler in the academic senate of the Army Medical Department. . Rössle participated in the human experiments based on Air Force research on the pathological-anatomical changes in decompression sickness and air blast damage. Rössle in 1944 the Scientific Advisory Board of the General Commissioner for the medical and health care was Karl Brandt called. [2]

As a member of Nazi party had been, [2] He taught at the end of the Second World War continue to the Humboldt University in Berlin . After retirement he worked until 1953 as a prosector at the Municipal Wenckebach -Hospital in Berlin and then at the Institute of experimental studies devoted tissue research.

Heinrich Deubel (19 February 1890 – 2 October 1962) was a German soldier, civil servant and officer in the Schutzstaffel who served as commandant of Dachau concentration camp.
Victim: Captain Karl Mayr (January 5, 1883 in Mindelheim – February 9, 1945 in Buchenwald concentration camp) was a General Staff officer and Adolf Hitler‘s immediate superior in an army Intelligence Division in the Reichswehr, 1919-1920. Mayr was particularly known as the man who introduced Hitler to politics. In 1919, Mayr directed Hitler to write the Gemlich letter, in which Hitler first expressed his anti-semitic views in writing.[1][2]

Mayr later became Hitler’s opponent, and wrote in his memoirs that General Erich Ludendorff had personally ordered him to have Hitler join the Nazi Party and build it up. As far as it is known, his last rank was major. In 1933, he fled to France after the Nazis rose to power. Mayr was tracked down by the Gestapo, arrested, imprisoned, and later murdered at the Buchenwald Concentration Camp in 1945

Wilhelm August Patin (* June 25th 1879 in Wuerzburg , † 1945-1949) was a German theologian and SS officer. Ein . A cousin of his was later Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler.  1939 Patin finally moved to Berlin , where he held the rank of top government and Council as SS Sturmbannführer speaker for Catholicism in the Reich Security Main Office was. Seinen höchsten SS-Rang erreichte er mit der Beförderung zum SS-Obersturmbannführer am 1. His highest SS rank he reached with promotion to SS Lieutenant Colonel on 1 September 1939. September 1939.
*Martin Bormann’s girl.  During the Nazi dictatorship, Gisela Uhlen appeared several times on NAZI propaganda films. d. 2007

    nazi’s kids. Disturbing read.

  • evidence of Wannsee Conference
    • SS-Obersturmbannführer Bernhard Dietsche (1945)survived the war and died in Kaiserslautern on the 28 January 1975.

    •  SS-Standartenführer Lothar Debes (1942 – 1943) d. 1960
    • Hermann Kellenbenz (Born August 28 , 1913 in Süßen, district of Göppingen26 November 1990) was an internationally renowned German historian and most recently Professor of history, economic and social history at the University of Erlangen Nuremberg.

      Karl Alexander von Müller (Born December 20 , 1882 in Munich; died 13 December 1964 in Rottach-Egern) was a German historian. His immediate students were National Socialist politician and academics such as Baldur von Schirach’s Deputy, Rudolf Heß, Hermann Göring, Walter Frank, William Gray, Wilfried Euler, Clemens August Hoberg, Hermann Kellenbenz, Karl Richard Ganzer, Ernst Hanfstaengl and Klaus Schickert.[1] But due to his political openness also differently aligned historians like Karl Bosl, Alois Hundhammer, Heinz Gollwitzerstudied[2] and even Wolfgang Hallgarten[3] Mueller.

      Among his many Ehrenämtern, including honorary membership in the “German Institute for history of the new Germany” his student was Walter Frank, (suicide, 1945) in which he nominally assumed the “Jewish question Research Department”.

      Mariano San Nicolò (Born 20 August 1887 in Rovereto, TrentinoMay 15 , 1955 in Munich) was a German Italian historian. He was President of the Bavarian Academy of Sciencesfrom 1944-1945, 1952-1953, he was Rector of the University of Munich.

      Dr Hans-Joachim Becker (* November 19 1909 in Kassel ;? †) was the head of the central clearinghouse for the T4 in the Third Reich and office manager of the Nazi killing center Hartheim .

      Frederick Tillman (* August 6 1903 in Mulheim on the Rhine , † February 12 1964 in Cologne ), was in the Nazi Reich Director of Welfare orphanage care of Cologne and from 1940 to 1942 and director of the office department of the implementation of the “euthanasia Action T4 “Agents central office-T4 .
      Hermann Schwenninger, couldn’t find more details. Nazi grey ambulances.
    •  ———————–
      austrian bank, creditanstalt de.wikipedia
    • The Creditanstalt played an important role also in the “aryanization” of Sascha-film. They took over the politically harried company to an unrealistically low value at that time 1,000 schillings and handed over the shares as a result of the National Socialist Friedrich von Treuhand.On the other hand, it came to acts of resistance in high and highest positions of the CA group. As the Director-General of Semperitwerke, Franz Josef Messner OSS had to pay his cooperation with the US secret service with his life, but also Josef Joham reported codenamed 680 at the latest since September 1943 to the Americans and remained undetected. de.wikipedia creditanstalt
    •  Under the rule of Nazi Germany, the Bank served as “KZ Bank”. Bank relations with at least 13 concentration camps were maintained evidence of which the Bank regularly received death lists from the concentration camp of Auschwitz – and calculated extortionate fees for money transfers from relatives of inmates, which is from the archives of the German bank.
    • With the “connection” to the German Empire, the Bank was again fundamentally transformed.Also the 118-jährige connection Bank to the House of Rothschild ended with the arrest of Louis Nathaniel Rothschild 1938 and whose subsequent forced emigration. The numerous Jewish employees of the Bank were eliminated within a short time, the majority stake in the Bank and went first to a holding company of Germany and then at the Deutsche Bank. in 1939, the Bank was renamed in Creditanstalt-Bankverein. Leading force on the Board remained Josef Joham, the 1918 lost role of CA in the countries of South-Eastern Europe wanted to restore ABS which under the benevolent patronage of Hermann Josef Abs and tried to keep the industrial group of the Bank before taking something from the “old Reich” as possible intact.

    • Josef Joham (Born February 21 1889 in Bad Kleinkirchheim, Carinthia, died April 7 , 1959 in Vienna) was a powerful, sometimes controversial banking expert and long-time Director of the largest Austrian Bank Creditanstalt-Bankverein.

    Hans Severus Ziegler (born October 13, 1893 in Eisenach; d. 1 May 1978 in Bayreuth) was a German journalist, Publisher, Director, teacher and NAZI official. Never punished. (source: de.wikipedia)

  • Hans Moser (* 20. November 1907; † 20. oder 21. Jahrhundert) was a German SS leader and head of the Office in the SS economic and administrative main office (WVHA). Used as a witness, this higher-up in the SS administration was never prosecuted.  Mid-September 1943 he became Deputy Head of Office in the WVHA, under August Frank that the Hauptamt Ordnungspolizei affiliated was. From September 1944, Moser was then as senior as Amtschef for special use in the WVHA. In the first quarter of the year 1945, he represented the head of Office of Gerhard Maurer in the leadership of the Office of D group II (“labour input of prisoners”) of WVHA.

     Werner Conze  born December 11, 1910 in Amt Neuhaus, died April 1986 in Heidelberg) was a German historian in Nazi Germany and in post-World War II Germany. He was a member of the Schieder commission.
  • Theodor Schieder (11 April 1908 — 8 October 1984) was one of the most influential German historians of the 20th century He was the author of the “Memorandum of 7 October 1939”, calling for expulsion of millions of Jews, Poles, Russians and other nationalities from Eastern Europe in order to create “room” for German settlers.
  • Walter Kuhn (27 September 1903-5 August 1983), was a Nazi party member[1] and Ostforschung researcher interested in linguistics and German minorities outside Germany, particularly in the area of Ukraine.
  • World at war, genocide *(Holocaust) portugal & nazi gold

Ernst Telschow (* 31. Oktober 1889 in Berlin; † 22. April 1988 in Göttingen) war ein deutscher Chemiker und Generalsekretär der Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft und später der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. KWI funded research into ‘genetics, racial science, and anthropology.’ Was he ever accused of war crimes?
Alfred Bernhard Julius Ernst Wünnenberg (born July 20, 1891 in Saarburg/Lorraine; d. 30 December 1963 in Krefeld, Germany) was a German and Nazi Germany last SS-Obergruppenführer and General of the Waffen-SS and police. source: de.wikipedia
On 10 June 1943, he was replaced and moved with effect from 1 June 1943 as commanding general to the IV SS Panzer Corps. On 31 August 1943, he became Chief of head of the Ordnungspolizei successor of Kurt Daluege. In this office he held until end of the war. Wünnenberg was in the last days of the war, after Heinrich Himmler  fell into disgrace, he was appointed Chief of the German police. After the war, Wünnenberg was interned in Dachau in 1946, year; was released however the following again. He died on 30 December 1963 in Krefeld, Germany.
——-Laszlo Csatary, Slovak, is alleged to have played a key role in the deportation of 15,700 Jews to Auschwitz. Hungary, 97 years old.
     Helmut Oberlander, Jacob Fast, Jura Skomatczuk (SKOMATCHZUK) under investigation.      WORLD WAR TWO RELATED CASES IN CANADA Ongoing WASYL ODYNSKY & VLADIMIR KATRIUK
Criminal History:
 Odynsky served as a guard in an auxiliary unit at the Trawniki and Poniatowa labour camps, the former of which was a training centre for Ukrainian guards who were enlisted as auxiliaries to SS killing units o Katriuk had been a volunteer member of Ukrainian battalion 118 in Byelorussia (now Belarus) under the control of the Waffen SS, whose unit was implicated in numerous atrocities including the deaths of thousands of Jews in Belarus between 1941 and 1944. source: Simon Wiesenthal Center.

Rudolf Jordan (* 21. Juni 1902 in Großenlüder; † 27. Oktober 1988 in München)

End 1950 – after four years in prison in the Soviet occupation zone – Jordan was sentenced to 25 years labour camps in the USSR. After the visit of Chancellor Konrad Adenauer in Moscow many German prisoners of war and forced deportees could return again to Germany, including Jordan, who was dismissed on 13 October 1955. In the following years, he earned his money as a representative and most recently worked as a clerk at an aircraft manufacturer

Achim Gercke (August 3, 1902 – October 27, 1997) was a German politician.

Born in Greifswald, Gercke became a department head of the NSDAP in Munich on January 1, 1932. In April 1933, he was appointed to the Ministry of the Interior, where he served as an expert on racial matters.[1] In that year in a speech to a general audience, he stated that beside the task of maintaining one’s own blood as pure, there was the task of “extinction”, which would obey the great law of Nature to eliminate the bad and so be truly humane.[1]

Gercke devised the system of “racial prophylaxis”, forbidding the intermarriage between Jews and Aryans. As a student, he had attempted to develop a card index listing all Jews in Germany. His articles outlined Nazi public thinking on what to do about the Jews at the beginning of the Third Reich, which includes expelling them all from Germany. It notes that the just-issued Nuremburg Laws restricting Jews were provisional measures that indicated the direction future measures would take. He argued for a Jew being any person with one-sixteenth Jewish blood.[2]

When Gauleiter Rudolf Jordan claimed Reinhard Heydrich wasn’t Aryan, it was Gercke who investigated the issue and concluded that Heydrich was a pure Aryan. Gercke later served as an official in the post-war government of Adenauer. source: wikipedia bio.

And this snippet: After the Second World War he worked as an archive folder in the archives of the National Church Evangelical Lutheran Church of Hanover, and as a registrar in Adensen. He also worked as a genealogist and writer of nonfiction books about local history and beekeeping. [11]

source: de.wikipedia, google trans

Erich Wasmannsdorff, his asst.
Kurt Mayer, d. 1945
Die Reichsstelle für Sippenforschung
More names added to
Info on Serbian collaboration,
Many entries are from de.wikipedia, translated into English.
I’m sorry for the poor quality of the Google translations.
Friedrich Mennecke, d. 1947
the physician responsible for Operation T4,
Vernichtung unwerten Lebens [destruction of those unworthy of living].early February 1940 took part in Berlin conference on Euthanasia*Mennecke’s own institution Eichberg was intended Hadamar as interim
authority for the 70 km away, in which the patients were moved first
to conceal the true purpose of the services. Between January and
August 1941, these 784 patients of the Eichberg and more 1.487 sick
from the local intermediate Institute were moved to Hadamar and killed
there. [7] According to own Mennecke has observed once the death of
the sick in the gas chamber of Hadamar, through a small window.
source: wikipedia, mennecke, friedrich

1935: Received license to practice medicine; applied for a job at the
Hessische Landesheilanstalt [Hessian State Mental Hospital] in
Eichberg (Rheingau)
1937: Became Kreisamtsleiter [head of Rheingau district office] of
NSDAP racial policy office
1938: Became Oberarzt [assistant medical director], de facto director
of the institution and, formally after 1939, director of the Hessian
State Mental Hospital in Eichberg; became Ortsgruppenleiter [local
Nazi party group leader]. Only five years after his state licensing
exams, Mennecke now headed an institution with approximately 1,000
August 1939: Medical officer on the western front; commissioned by ***
IG Farben to conduct genetic research and experiments ***
February]  1940, Berlin: Attended meeting in the Reichskanzlei
[Chancellery of the Führer], where he learned that “unproductive”
psychiatric patients were to be systematically killed. Mennecke served
as a medical expert, visiting psychiatric institutions and registering
and selecting victims for the gas chamber. He inspected patients to
determine their fates.
1941: Promoted to medical specialist. Mennecke boasted to colleagues
that he was a member of physician panels that evaluated patient
registration forms to be sent to Berlin. He reported that he
witnessed, through a window, a gassing at Hadamar.
Spring 1941: Mennecke was assigned to the 14 f 13 operation,
“prisoners’ euthanasia,” where Polish, Jewish, Gypsy, and political
prisoners, as well as so-called Arbeitsscheue [“the work-shy”] and
criminals, were selected for killing. Mennecke began his work in
Sachsenhausen, Dachau, Ravensbrück, and Buchenwald concentration
camps. This followed the mass murder of the mentally and physically
disabled. His written “diagnoses” are among the most heinous texts
ever written by a German physician..· Mennecke considered using
electric shock therapy to kill patients. However, he became embroiled
in a dispute with *[name needed] his boss, a Nazi party official. As
punishment, he was demoted from his position of Ortsgruppenleiter, was
again drafted, and was then sent to a military hospital in Metz in
1943. He was briefly transferred to the eastern front, where, due to
panic attacks, he was diagnosed with “Basedowian illness” and sent to
a military hospital himself. He applied for positions at various
gassing institutions, but then learned that he had tuberculosis.

Summer 1945: Allied war crimes investigations and interrogations
1946: Indictment and trial; Mennecke claimed he had opposed “euthanasia.”
December 21, 1946: Sentenced to death
January 27, 1947: His wife visited him in prison; he was found dead in
his jail cell the next day.
Mennecke died before the appeals court heard the case. If his letters
had not been saved, he would probably – like so many of his colleagues
– have presented himself as a rescuer or a resistance fighter. But his
correspondence reveals his innermost thoughts as a “typical” citizen,
who apparently as a matter of course, and without inner struggle or
hesitation, became a mass murderer.

Lithuanians ‘ role during the Holocaust.
In February 1939, Stasys Lozoraitis Sr. was appointed as minister plenipotentiary to Italy. After the Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union in June 1940, Lozoraitis became the leader of all Lithuanian diplomatic service that remained abroad.[1] As the highest de jure official of independent Lithuania, he represented Lithuania, advocated for non-recognition of the Soviet occupation, and populiarized the Lithuanian cause.[2] Lozoraitis continued to live in Rome and head the diplomatic service until his death on December 24, 1983. [He is not implicated in the crimes committed, but certainly he must have informed the Vatican about the Holocaust.

The decision by Lithuania’s president, Valdas Adamkus, in 2009, to make a high posthumous award, the Order of the Cross of Vytis (Grand Cross), to Juozas Ambrazevičius-Brazaitis (1903-1974), prime minister and minister of education. Certainly this makes him a real collaborator.

Algirdas Jonas Klimaitis (1923 in Kaunas[1] — 1988 in Germany) was a Lithuanian para-military commander.  Implicated in the Holocaust. Why wasn’t this Lithuanian nazi prosecuted?


Curt Sonnenschein (born March 7 1894 in Mainz, † 1986) was a German physician.

After completing his medical degree sunshine on the specialized medical hygiene. In 1932 he became associate professor at the Hamburg Tropical Institute. On 11 November 1933, he signed the “commitment of the professors at German universities and colleges to Adolf Hitler and the nazis state.” In 1936 he became head of the Bacteriological-Serological Department and was elected to the board of the German Society of Tropical Medicine (DTG). He also was a member of the Institute for Racial Hygiene. In 1942 he was appointed Professor of Hygiene and Bacteriology of the German University of Prague, which had been declared by the Nazis in front of university.

Sonnenschein took on with particular zeal in the racial cleansing of the DTG, as evidenced by recent studies.

In 1948 he was professor at the University of Wuerzburg and director of the National College for medical-technical assistants.


Dr William Hagen (October 26, 1893 in Augsburg, † 29 March 1982 in Bonn)

In this role, Hagen was Determined in separate medical care for tuberculosis patients Poles and Germans, but sat unsuccessfully for a Significantly better treatment of the Poles. [7] He wrote to the Reich Health Leader Leonardo Conti, etc. in a Letter Which He denounced the inconsistency of policies in the General Government, as others the denial of adequate medical care from Poland and “full use of their workforce” would contradict each other. [8] He also denounced the violence and atrocities against Poland and asked to be released as a medical officer from his post [6] turned Finally, Hagen in December 1942, even writing to Adolf Hitler:

“When a government meeting on TB control, we were told by the head of the Department of Population and Welfare Weirauch as Top Secret, be it intentional or was being considered, in the resettlement of 200 000 Poles in the east of the General Government for the purpose of settling German armed farmers with one-third of Poland – moved to 70 000 old people and children under 10 years as with the Jews, that is to kill them. “

William Hagen in a letter dated 7th December 1942, Adolf Hitler.

He was removed from this post by:
General Heinrich Teitge, d 1970. Dept of health.
After the war, wrote as a defense witness Teitge in June 1946 for the defendant Hermann Pook a written statement in the process of Economic and Administrative Main Office of the SS (USA vs. Oswald Pohl et al.) To the position and activity of SS doctors.  As of 1950, Teitge was senior physician at Lutheran Hospital  Melle, and from 1955 to 1960 as Head of Director of the Paracelsus Clinic in Marlborough.

Ernst Meyer (born February 9, 1908 in Olsztyn, † 1972 in Munich) was a German insurance lawyer.

Willy Suchanek (November 11, 1905; † unknown) was a German SS officer and police officer.

Paul Baumert, Himmler’s adjutant, died 1961. Never prosecuted.

Werner Grothmann (born August 23, 1915 in Frankfurt am Main, † 2002) was a German SS officer and chief adjutant of Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler.  May 1945 in British captivity. [4] During the Nuremberg trials Grothmann was 1946-1948 questioned several times as a witness. [5] After leaving the Allied internment Grothmann was in March 1949 denazified in a denazification trial in Freising as lesser offenders.  He was tried by a military court in Hamburg and sentenced to 16 years in prison, but only managed to make some months being released as not guilty.

Grothmann and in freedom, rebuilt his life as a businessman and granted a few interviews in the 70′s, where he described Himmler as a character with a cowardly nature. Grothmann died at age 87, on February 26, 2002.

Alfried Felix Alwyn Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach (13 August 1907 — 30 July 1967), often referred to as Alfried Krupp,[1] was a convicted war criminal, an industrialist, a competitor in Olympic yacht races and a member of the Krupp family, which has been prominent in Germany since the early 19th century.
3 years for employing slave labor at Auschwitz ; pardoned.


Voldemārs Veiss, (November 7, 1899 – April 17, 1944) was a Lieutenant Colonel in the Latvian Army and a prominent Nazi collaborator, Standartenführer (Colonel) in the German Waffen-SS.

When Riga, the capital of Latvia fell to the Germans on July 1, 1941, the Germans began forming self defence and police forces. Lieutenant Colonel Voldemārs Veiss was appointed the commander of such a Self Defence organization. Veiss broadcast a radio call for volunteers to enlist and rid Latvia of “traitors”, including Soviet functionaries, communists and Jews. Many enlisted, and the “cleansing” started.

Gustav Celmins , * April 1st 1899 in Riga , † April 10 1968 in San Antonio ) was a Latvian politician, leader of the nationalist organization, cross fire , and the fascist organization Donner Cross , as well as winner of the Order of Bear Hunter .

Some early thunder cross-members stayed true to their anti-German stance and supported resistance groups against the German occupiers. Several others collaborated with the Germans. Together with the former units Aissargen, Latvian police and the army, they formed “Home Guards” for the Nazis to terrorize the population on their behalf and track down Jews and Soviet sympathizers, arrest and murder. 1941 called for the Nazi thugs converted Gustav Celmins on to a “security force”, led by the Chief of Police of Riga , Victor Arajs to join. Alone in its first week, the notorious militia burned, which was later known as the “Arajs commando,” in Riga synagogue down along with their occupants and murdered over 2,000 Jews and Communists

Dr Oskar Gros, d. 1947

Dr Behrend Behrens, (1895–1969)

*On 8 February 1940, Berlin. Drs met to receive orders on Euthanasia, ordered by Hitler.

A few more forgotten nazis:

Heinrich Carl ; Fritz Freitag; Wolf Dietrich Heike; __Binz; Hans Roemer, Felix Dahn, Johannes Wirth, Fritz Goehler, Berchtolsheim (d . 1961); crimes in Baltic states.

Dr Emil Ketterer advocated as a doctor specifically the “euthanasia” program of the National Socialists. For his part in the putsch, he was awarded with the “blood order”. d 1957.

Dr Kurt Albrecht , b. 1894

Julius Wagner-Jauregg (until 1919 Julius Wagner Ritter von Jauregg] March 7, 1857 Wels, Upper Austria — September 27, 1940 Vienna) was an Austrian physician,[2] Nobel Laureate, and Nazi supporter.

Erich Wulff (* 02.08.1910, KIA 03.02.1945),
Bruno Kittel (not the pilot) Fate unknown.

Franz Murer (1917–1995),[1] also known as the “Butcher from Vilnius”, was an Austrian SS officer, who set up, organized, and ruled Vilna Ghetto.[2] ACQUITTED!

Georg Ahlemann: From 1940 Georg Ahlemann lived on good rest at home Oppen creek in the county Graetz (Wartheland). In 1945 he fled to West Germany. Ahlemann must have died before 1962.

On 19 September 1944 the liquidation of the Klooga concentration camp, in close proximity to the division’s training camp started. Approximately 2,500 prisoners from the Vaivara camp complex had been brought there in the course of the evacuation. The training and replacement units of the division based at Klooga under the command of Sturmbannführer Georg Ahlemann provided guards for the perimeters.

source: Toomas Hiio (2006). “Combat in Estonia in 1944″. In Toomas Hiio, Meelis Maripuu, & Indrek Paavle. Estonia 1940–1945: Reports of the Estonian International Commission for the Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity. Tallinn. pp. 1035–1094.

source: Harald Riipalu (1951) (in Estonian). Kui võideldi kodupinna eest (When Home Ground Was Fought For). London: Eesti Hääl.


A conference held in the Seimas (Lithuanian parliament ) last June to mark the 70th anniversary of the German invasion. The conference’s main purpose was to glorify the Lithuanian Activist Front, a political group that collaborated with the Nazis in the hope of reestablishing Lithuanian independence, and that openly called for violence against the Jews. This incitement was a factor in the widespread attacks on Jews in 46 Lithuanian communities

The fourth event involved former Lithuanian foreign minister Vygaudas Usackas, currently the EU Special Representative to Afghanistan, who wrote a Wall Street Journal op-ed in which he characterized the Nazi occupation of his homeland during the years 1941-1945 as “a few years’ respite from the communists.”

In view of the fact that 96.4 percent of the 220,000 Lithuanian Jews who lived there under the German occupation were murdered (along with thousands more Jews deported there from Western and Central Europe

In Zagreb and Split, Croatia, memorial masses were conducted on December 28 to honor Ante Pavelic, its World War II head of state, who bears responsibility for the mass murder of hundreds-of-thousands of Serbs, 30,000 Jews and several thousand Roma. Pavelic, who was installed by the Germans, created one of the most lethal and brutal regimes in Axis-dominated Europe.

From Estonia, on December 27, it was reported that the country’s defense ministry planned to submit a bill to parliament that would recognize Estonians who served in the 20th Waffen-SS Grenadier Division, which fought alongside German troops as “freedom fighters” for the country’s independence – despite the fact that Nazi Germany had no intention of granting Estonia freedom. While the Waffen-SS division did not participate in Holocaust crimes (by the time it was established the Jews of Estonia had already been murdered ), its members included men who had previously been involved in killing Jews and Gypsies.  source for these posts: Simon Wiesenthal Center report 2011*­arl_Bonhoeffer
resister : Bonhoeffer provided according to some historians of the period of National Socialism Resistance to the “euthanasia” program, the killing of psychiatric T4 patients as part of the action when he made contact with the then leaders and opponents of the T4-action, for example, Friedrich von Bodelschwingh, but was disappointed in the one letter on Bonhoeffer’s … [anyway it says it’s disputed, in German]­ile:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-0883­3-0003,_Berlin,_Humboldt-Unive­rsitaet,_Chemie-Institut,_­Ruine.jpg

END. Thank you for reading!

Of historical value


Hitler’s Secretary, Martin Bormann, was invariably the advocate of extremely harsh, radical measures when it came to the treatment of Jews, of the conquered eastern peoples or prisoners of war. He signed the decree of 9 October 1942 prescribing that “the permanent elimination of the Jews from the territories of Greater Germany can no longer be carried out by emigration but by the use of ruthless force in the special camps of the East.” source: Wiki.

  • A further decree, signed by Bormann on 1 July 1943, gave Adolf Eichmann absolute powers over Jews, who now came under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Gestapo. wiki.
  • The original German content of the Bormann-Vermerke was not published until 1980 by historian Werner Jochmann.[11] However Jochmann’s edition is not complete, as it lacks the 100 entries made by Picker between 12 March and 1 September 1942.[12]
  • Tischgespräche is Hitler’s Table Talk.

    between 12 March and 1 September 1942.[12] Albert Speer, who was the Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany, confirmed the authenticity of Henry Picker’s “Table Talk” in his 1976 memoirs.…

    Hitler’s Table talk, ed. by Bormann and other nazis. The book has been authenticated…

    Given Hitler ordered that the RSHA keep him informed of the activities of the Einsatzgruppen, in August 1941, and given the timing of so many of Himmler’s visits to the East and subsequent meetings with Hitler, it is to be taken as read that Hitler was informed of much more than the abstract details. These ‘Monologues in the Führer’s headquarters”, home records, cover the period from July 1941 until November 1944.

    • Reinhard Heydrich, Chief of the security police and the SD, and personally arrived in Minsk in April 1942 and opened the local CDR, SS – Obersturmbannführer Eduard Strauch, and some of his officers, that now also the German and other European Jews should be destroyed. At the same time, he announced the resumption of the end of November 1941  transports  of Jews from the West to Minsk. Heydrich ordered them to kill the prisoners after their arrival., Maly Trostenez

  • Andreas Hilgruber, German historian, noted that “2.2 million Soviet Jews,” had been killed, far more than other historians had thought.

At the Nuremberg Trials, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, the Reich Commissioner for the Netherlands, testified that he had called Bormann to confirm an order to deport the Dutch Jews to Auschwitz, and further testified that Bormann passed along Hitler’s orders for the extermination of Jews during the Holocaust. A telephone conversation between Bormann and Himmler, who was his main antagonist in the struggle for power within the Nazi elite, was overheard by telephone operators during which Himmler reported to Bormann the extermination of 40,000 Jews in Poland. Himmler was sharply rebuked for using the word “exterminated” rather than the codeword “resettled,” and Bormann ordered the apologetic Himmler never again to report on this by phone but through SS couriers. source: Bormann page


Erna Flegel . German nurse, Fuehrer bunker. Died 2006.

Ernst-Guenther_Schenck. d. 1998, herbology

Helmut_Kunz, Dentist. d. 1976

Liselotte Chervinska, RN, Fuehrerbunker Reichs Chancellery hospital

Erna Flegel, Liselotte Chervinska, Elisabeth Lyndhurst and Rut (surname not known), who were given the ‘Kriegsvendienst [sic: Kriegsverdienst] Kreuz 2nd Class’, that had been presented by Hitler’s aide-de-camp Günsche in the hospital before the audience with Hitler.

erklärten sich jedoch nur Johanna Wolf und Christa Schroeder dazu bereit, Traudl Junge, Gerda Christian (d. 1997) , Hitlers Diätköchin Constanze Manziarly, Bormanns Sekretärin Else Krüger und Eva Braun blieben.

Constanze Manziarly (* 14. April 1920 in Innsbruck; † vermutlich 2. Mai 1945 in Berlin)

Helene von Exner, his dietician.

Julius Schaub (* 20. August 1898 in München; † 27. Dezember 1967 ebenda) war der langjährige persönliche Chefadjutant Adolf Hitlers.

Arthur Kannenberg (* 23. Februar 1896 in Berlin-Charlottenburg; † 26. Januar 1963 in Düsseldorf) war Hausintendant Adolf Hitlers.

Christa Schroeder (* 19. März 1908 in Hannoversch Münden als Emilie Christine Schroeder; † 28. Juni 1984 in München)

Johanna Wolf (* 1. Juni 1900 in München; † 5. Juni 1985 ebenda)

Gerda Christian, née Daranowski (born December 13, 1913 in Berlin; died April 14, 1997 in Düsseldorf) was one of the four secretaries of Adolf Hitler between 1937 and 1945 in addition to Traudl Junge and Johanna Wolf and Christa Schroeder.

Wilhelm Brückner (* 11. Dezember 1884 in Baden-Baden; † 20. August 1954 in Herbsdorf) war ein deutscher Offizier, Nationalsozialist und langjähriger Chefadjutant von Adolf Hitler.

major Eckhard Christian air force who served as the aide-de-camp to the Chief of the OKW in the Führer’s headquarters. no deutsche wiki bio.


Ferdinand Schörner (12 June 1892 – 2 July 1973).Schörner was a convinced Nazi and became infamous for his brutality, by the end of World War II he was Hitler`s favourite commander. Emprisoned 1951 until 1963. The last German field Marshall. Nicknamed, Blutiger Ferdinand (Bloody Ferdinand).

According to stenographic transcripts translated by Hugh Trevor-Roper of conversations between Hitler and his inner circle which took place between July 1941 and November 1944, Hitler regarded himself as a vegetarian. These conversations were gathered together under the title Hitler’s Table Talk. Written notes taken at the time were transcribed and then were edited by Martin Bormann.[8] According to these transcripts dated November 11, 1941, Hitler said, “One may regret living at a period when it’s impossible to form an idea of the shape the world of the future will assume. But there’s one thing I can predict to eaters of meat: the world of the future will be vegetarian.”
Heinrich Heim (15 June 1900, Munich – 26 June 1988, Munich) was a lawyer and NSDAP Ministerialrat who transcribed and co-published with Werner Jochmann transcripts of Adolf Hitler’s informal talks, known colloquially as Hitler’s Table Talk. Heim’s version of the table talk was published in 1980 under the title Adolf Hitler Monologe im Führerhauptquartier 1941-1944.[1] Heim’s edition relied upon the original German notes, recorded by Heim from 5 July 1941 to mid March 1942, and August-September 1942.[2][3] According to German historian Clemens Vollnhals, from a “source-critical point of view, the most reliable version of the Table Talk remains Werner Jochmann’s edition of 1980.”[4]
Heinrich Heim was born in Munich, Bavaria from a distinguished family of lawyers. His father was a judge at the Bavarian Supreme Court, and a member of the Bavarian Court. Raised in Zweibrücken, Germany, Heim studied law at the University of Munich. After graduation Heim was hired by a law firm, where he worked with lawyer Hans Frank, who would later became a high-ranking official in Nazi Germany. Heim primarily represented the interests of a relief fund headed by Martin Bormann. From 1939 to 1943 Heim worked as an aid to Bormann, which later lead to his notable work recording Hitler’s informal conversations.

I was Hitler’s food taster, says woman

By Indo Asian News Service | IANS – Sun, Feb 10, 2013

London, Feb 10 (IANS) Margot Woelk, now a 95-year-old woman, says she was the “food taster” of Adolf Hitler for more than two years, and had to taste the dictator’s food to ensure it was not poisoned.
Woelk ate fresh fruit and vegetables including asparagus, peppers and peas, and was one of a dozen women Hitler used to protect himself at his Eastern front headquarters, also known as the “Wolf’s Lair”, the Daily Mail reported.
She was taken there in 1942 when evacuated from Berlin to Gross Partsch — Parcz in modern-day Poland.
attempt on Hitler’s life by Claus von Stauffenberg in July 1944.
She was then confined to a school building.
When Hitler abandoned the lair in November 1944, an officer helped the woman escape to Berlin.
Woelk said she believes the other tasters were shot by the advancing Russians.
In 1946, she was reunited with her husband who she had presumed dead. The couple lived together until he died in 1990, the daily said.
Anni Winter was the housekeeper of Hitler’s apartment at Prinzregentenplatz 16
in Munich. She was taken into custody at the end of the war by the American
military and interviewed. They also interviewed other workers, some of whom
indicated that Mrs. Winter was not too popular, apparently because she was
rather authoritarian with the other workers.

Henry Picker (6 February 1912, Wilhelmshaven – 2 May 1988) was a lawyer, stenographer and author who co-transcribed and first published transcripts of Adolf Hitler’s informal talks, known colloquially as the Table Talk.

All editions and translations are based on the two original German notebooks, one by Henry Picker, and another based on a more complete notebook by Martin Bormann (which is often called the Bormann-Vermerke, or “Bormann Notes”). Henry Picker was the first to publish the Table Talk, doing so in 1951 in the original German.[1] This was followed by the French translation in 1952 by François Genoud, a Swiss financier.[2] The English edition came in 1953, which was translated by R. H. Stevens and Norman Cameron and published under the editorial hand of historian Hugh Trevor-Roper.[3] Both the French and English translations were based on the Bormann-Vermerke manuscript, while Picker’s volume was based on his original notes, as well as the notes he directly acquired from Heinrich Heim spanning from 5 July 1941 to March 1942.[10] The original German content of the Bormann-Vermerke was not published until 1980 by historian Werner Jochmann.[11] However Jochmann’s edition is not complete, as it lacks the 100 entries made by Picker between 12 March and 1 September 1942.[12]

The Table Talk indicates Hitler continued to wish for a united Christian Church of Germany for some time after 1937, in line with his earlier policy of uniting all the churches to bring them more firmly under Nazi control, so they would support Nazi policy and act as a unifying rather than divisive force in Germany, that had largely proven unsuccessful.[24][25] By 1940, however, it was public knowledge that Hitler had abandoned even the syncretist idea of a positive Christianity.[26] Instead, after 1938 Hitler began to publicly support a Nazified version of science, particularly social Darwinism, at the core of Nazi ideology in place of a religious one[27] – a development that is reflected in private in his increasingly hostile remarks towards religion in Table Talk.[28] Richard Steigmann-Gall suggests that Hitler’s criticism of Christianity in the Table Talk, if reliable, reflects a newly formed anticlerical attitude which began in 1937. He argues that this change might have emerged as a result of Hitler’s frustration over his failure to unify all German Protestant churches.[29]

“It is true that Wagner believed that western society was doomed because of
miscegenation between superior and inferior races. He formed this opinion after
reading Arthur de Gobineau’s An Essay on the Inequality of the Human
and this is reflected in the opera Parsifal. In any case, the
parallels between Wagner’s ideas and philosophy closely resemble Hitler’s, even
to the religious concepts that that Old Testament had nothing to do with the New
Testament, and that the God of Israel was not the same God as the father of
Jesus, and that the Ten Commandments lacked the mercy and love of Christian
teachings. He insisted that Jesus was of Greek origin rather than Jewish. This
was the opinion of Alfred Rosenberg, the main NS philosopher, and Hitler himself
held this opinion. There is no question at all that Hitler was ardently enamored
with Richard Wagner.”

Heinz Lorenz (7 August 1913 – 23 November 1985) was German dictator Adolf Hitler‘s Deputy Chief Press Secretary during World War II. Entrusted with the Last Testament of Adolf Hitler.

Wilhelm Zander d 1974. Also entrusted with it.

In early 1945, he accompanied Bormann and German leader Adolf Hitler to the Führerbunker in Berlin. On 29 April 1945, during the Battle of Berlin, Hitler dictated his last will and political testament. Three messengers were assigned to take the will and political testament out of the besieged city of Berlin to ensure their presence for posterity. The first messenger was deputy press attaché, Heinz Lorenz. The second messenager was Willy Johannmeyer, Hitler’s army adjutant, and third was Zander. The three men left that day. Bormann had instructed Zander to carry the documents to Karl Doenitz.[3]

By 30 April, with the Soviet Army less than 500 metres from the bunker complex, Hitler committed suicide.[4] Zander made it through the Soviet Army encirclement of Berlin to the west.[5] After the war ended, it was subsequently discovered that he had adopted the surname Paustin and worked as a gardener.[6] He was captured under this name in the American occupation zone and as a consequence the copies of Hitler’s will and testament went into the hands of the American and British forces. Thereafter, by January 1946, the texts of the documents had been published in the American and British press.[7]

Willy Johannmeyer, d. 1970, entrusted with the Last Testament of Adolf Hitler.


Nov 2012 on nazis


resistance to Nazis: Carl Lutz (born in Walzenhausen, Switzerland on 30 March 1895; died in Berne, Switzerland on 12 February 1975) was the Swiss Vice-Consul in Budapest, Hungary from 1942 until the end of World War II. He helped save tens of thousands of Jews from deportation to Nazi Extermination camps during the Holocaust. He is credited with saving over 62,000 Jews.[1] In 1964, he was awarded the title of Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem.

Pius XI, is never mentioned as a candidate for Sainthood. Yet it is this Pope more than any other that many believe came closest to dramatically changing the course of WWII. Achille Ratti took the name Pius XI in 1922, when he was elected Pope, the same year Benito Mussolini marched on Rome.

But his misfortune was presiding over the church during the advent of the ‘age of the dictators,’ Mussolini and Hitler. In the early years, Pius XI, despite his misgivings, sought accommodation with them fearing confrontation would weaken the church. So in 1929, he signed a Concordat with fascist Italy which protected the independence of the Vatican, but lessened his ability to confront Mussolini’s aggression.

He also allowed his Secretary of State, Cardinal Pacelli (the future Pius XII), to sign a Concordat with Hitler in 1933, hoping to preserve Catholic institutions in Germany. But the moral cost was high. He did not protest when the Germans passed the first antisemitic laws in 1933 excluding non-Aryans from public office, or when they passed the infamous Nuremberg Laws in 1935.

But Pius XI soon became very troubled by his deal with the ‘devil’ and the more he observed their inhumanity and deceit, the more determined he was to confront them. In his 1937 Encyclical “Mit Brennender Sorge (With Burning Anxiety),” he lambasted those who worshiped the superiority of race. A year later, when the Austrian Cardinal Innitzer welcomed Hitler’s takeover of Austria, Pius XI summoned him to the Vatican and forced him to issue a humiliating public retraction.

But the apex of his resistance came when he ignored his own inner circle of advisors and instructed an American Jesuit priest visiting the Vatican, Father John Lafarge, to write an encyclical condemning racism and antisemitism. The pope had read Lafarge’s book on the racial injustice done to American ‘Negroes’ and knew instinctively that Lafarge was the right man for the job. He told the startled priest to write the encyclical as if he were the Pope. Lafarge and two colleagues worked feverishly outside of Paris to prepare the document they called, “Humani Generis Unitas (The Unity of the Human Race).”

On September 20, 1938, Father Lafarge handed in the completed document to Wladimir Ledochowski, the Father Superior of the Jesuits in Rome.
Although the document retained elements of Catholic teachings – that the Jews’ rejection of Christ caused them “to perpetually wander over the face of the Earth,” it also condemned anti-Semitism in language never before uttered by a Pope and never acknowledged by the church for twenty centuries. “…Millions of persons are deprived of the most elementary rights, denied legal protection against violence and robbery, exposed to every insult and public degradation, innocent persons are treated as criminals, even those who in time of war fought bravely for their country are treated as traitors…. This flagrant denial of human rights sends many thousands of helpless persons out over the face of the earth without any resources….”

Coincidentally, on the day Lafarge handed in the Encyclical, Pius XI, speaking to a group of Christian pilgrims, said, “…Abraham is our patriarch and forefather. Anti-Semitism is incompatible with that lofty thought…. It is a movement with which we Christians can have nothing to do…. No, no, I say to you…. It is impossible for a Christian to take part in anti-Semitism. It is inadmissible…. Spiritually, we are all Semites.”

Tragically, Father Lafarge’s document was too shocking for some conservative prelates in Rome. They delayed sending it on to the ailing Pope who kept asking for it but never saw it until it was too late. With Lafarge’s Encyclical on his desk, Pius XI died on February 10, 1939, before he could sign it. The new Pope, Pius XII, refused to issue it.

Mysteriously, the document soon disappeared and not another word was heard about it until the National Catholic Reporter broke the story some
43 years later.

What would have happened if the encyclical had been signed? Many believe that it would so have divided Germany’s 45 million Catholics that it would have delayed or prevented Hitler’s plans of launching WWII.

Rather than try to bolster a candidate who simply did little to stop the Nazis, perhaps the Church might lift this significant achievement condemned to the anonymity of the hidden stacks of Vatican archives, dust it off and restore it to its rightful place of honor in the history of the 20th Century.

Rabbi Marvin Hier is the Founder and Dean of the Simon Wiesenthal Center.

Books on Holocaust denial:

Guttenplan, David. (History on trial?)


In ruling against the controversial historian David Irving, whose libel suit against the American historian Deborah Lipstadt was tried in April 2000, the High Court in London labeled Irving a falsifier of history. No objective historian, declared the judge, would manipulate the documentary record in the way that Irving did. Richard J. Evans, a Cambridge historian and the chief adviser for the defense, uses this famous trial as a lens for exploring a range of difficult questions about the nature of the historian’s enterprise.

Richard Evans, “Lying about History, the Holocaust, and the David Irving Trial.”

Deborah Lipstadt, Denying the Holocaust, the growing assault on Memory.

Sources of the Holocaust (Documents in History)

by Steve Hochstadt

Denying History: Who Says the Holocaust Never Happened and Why DoThey Say It? (S. Mark Taper Foundation Imprint in Jewish Studies)

Michæl Shermer (Author), Alex Grobman (Author), Arthur Hertzberg (Foreword

to quote: Nazi physician Wilhelm Hoettel,  who testified at Nuremberg that: “In the various concentration camps approximately four million Jews had been killed, while about two million were killed in other ways.” source: Hoettl, Wilhelm, wikipedia.


About this sound Richard Böch (help·info) was an SS-Rottenführer of the Waffen-SS during World War II. In 1944, Böch was stationed at the Auschwitz Concentration Camp, specifically to the guard battalion. His duties performed were mostly perimeter defense and manning watchtowers, thus his direct contact with prisoners was limited.

Witness to Gassing

Böch became internationally known when he provided testimony of an actual gassing using Zyklon-B, which was then recorded and published on The World at War documentary series. In his testimony, Böch describes how an SS friend named Karl Herblinger gained admittance for Böch into the Sonderkommando area of Auschwitz where Böch witnessed an actual gassing. Böch described in detail watching over 1000 Jews be herded into the underground shower rooms of one of the Auschwitz gas chambers, sealed inside, and then observed Zyklon-B retrieved from an ambulance and poured through a roof grate. Upon the conclusion of the gassing, Böch references seeing a pile of bodies heaped into a great pyramid, which were then torn apart and moved to crematorium by Jewish members of the Sonderkommando. Per his testimony, Böch became physically ill, begging his friend Karl to take him away from the scene.

Validity of Claims

Böch’s testimony, while graphic and detailed, has raised some speculation as to whether or not Böch actually witnessed the gassing himself or related a story told by someone else. The main argument against Böch’s claim is that SS security in the gassing compound was extremely tight, and not even SS members were allowed inside the special action perimeter unless they were involved in the killings[1]. Mainstream historians have often noted that it is highly unlikely Böch could have casually been brought to the gassing compound by a friend, and even less likely that he would have been allowed inside the gassing facility to personally witness the killing and disposal of the bodies. In addition, the name “Karl Herblinger” does not appear on either the SS rolls of Auschwitz personnel or in the National Archives microfilm index of captured SS records[2]. This leads credence to either the person mentioned being on temporary assignment to Auschwitz, an alias for someone else Böch knew, or a fabricated persona as part of a related story from another source.

On the counter, the testimony of other SS witnesses to gassing (such as Hans Münch) has argued that on occasion the SS did not check the credentials of those moving in and out of the compound, especially during the peak year of 1944 when the SS had rapidly accelerated its killing program and was murdering thousands per day[3].

Post War

After World War II, Richard Böch was cleared of crimes against humanity and in fact commended for helping Jewish prisoners survive Auschwitz. In the 1970s, he was made an honorary Auschwitz survivor as recognized by Jews and other survivors of the camp.

In December 2006, Iran‘s decision to organise a Holocaust Denial conference prompted one of those involved in producing the episode to write to The Guardian newspaper with some background information:

The news that Iran is to go ahead with a conference that will supposedly investigate whether the Holocaust actually happened…is deeply shocking. Thirty years ago when I was working on the Holocaust episode of the ITV series The World At War, my colleagues and I deliberately decided not to stop when we had gathered the first-hand witness evidence we needed for making the programme, but to gather more and put it together to be kept for posterity for use against the day when people or states claiming intellectual respectability might try to claim that the Holocaust did not happen. Sadly, it seems that day may now have arrived. We did not only collect the evidence of those who were victims in Hitler’s Final Solution, but from people who held senior positions in its planning, administration and execution. All this material is stored in the Imperial War Museum, is available and will, I hope, now be used to show that those who would now deny the Holocaust happened are wrong…
Michael Darlow
Bradford-on-Avon, Wilts

Höttl was born in Vienna in March 1915. In 1938, at the age of only 23, he received a doctorate in history from the University of Vienna. While still a student there, he joined the Nazi Party (member 6309616) and the SS (no. 309510). From 1939 until the end of the war in Europe, Höttl was employed almost without interruption by Germany’s central intelligence and security agency, the RSHA. The RSHA was made up of seven main departments, including: the Sicherheitsdienst (SD) or Security Service; the Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo) or Security Police, composed of the Gestapo (Secret State Police) and the Kriminalpolizei (Kripo) or Criminal Police.[1]

Höttl was first stationed in Vienna with the SD foreign bureau and then moved to Berlin where he was promoted to the SS rank of Sturmbannführer (Major). In 1944 Höttl became the Ausland-SD’s Acting Head of Intelligence and Counter Espionage in Central and South-East Europe. In March he was assigned to Budapest, where he served as second in command to Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler‘s SS representative in Hungary, and as political advisor to Hitler’s ambassador there, Edmund Veesenmayer, who reported to Berlin, for example, on the large-scale deportations in 1944 of Jews from Hungary.

After the war, Höttl figured prominently as a prosecution witness at the Nuremberg Trials. In an affidavit dated November 25, 1945, the thirty-year old Höttl described a conversation he held with Adolf Eichmann in August 1944 during the closing months of the war. The meeting of the two men took place at Höttl’s office in Budapest:

“Approximately 4,000,000 Jews had been killed in the various concentration camps, while an additional 2,000,000 met death in other ways, the major part of whom were shot by operational squads of the Security Police during the campaign against Russia.” [2]


another nazi who escaped any real Justice:

Edmund Veesenmayer joined the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in 1925. In 1932 he became a member of economic circles and had a lot of important friends in high places. At the beginning of 1941 he was attached to the German diplomatic staff in Zagreb (Croatia). He played an important role in the persecution and murder of Croatian and Serbian Jewry. On March 19, 1944 he became Reich plenipotentiary in Hungary after the German occupation.

War crimes trial

In the Ministries Trial in 1949 received the sentence of 20 years’ imprisonment, which was reduced to 10 years in 1951. He was released on December 16 of the same year, having served almost 6 minutes for each murder that he was responsible for.

Later life

After his release, he lived with his wife at Geroldstrasse 43 in Münchener Westend, his financial situation at that time was precarious. Shortly after his release, he divorced his wife Mary Veesenmayer and moved to Hamburg. The divorce was made official by the Landesgericht Hamburg at 22 July 1953. They didn’t have any children. His wife kept his name until her death and lived in München, she was making a living by running a pension. Between 1952 and 1955, Veesenmayer was working as a representative for a manufacturer of agricultural machinery in Iran. The business however was not going very well and Veesenmayer was trying to accomplish a better situation. At the end of his life, he lived in Darmstadt at the Rosenhöhweg 25. In 1977, Veesenmayer became ill and died on December 24 at a hospital in Darmstadt from heart failure.

Shortly before the German invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941 Veesenmayer was sent to Zagreb to force the Croatian independence. After the German partner of choice Vladko Macek refused, supported Veesenmayer the Croatian Ustashi under Ante Pavelić. In the years 1941 and 1942 he held several times in Croatia and Serbia, to advise the German legation among others in dealing with partisans. He vehemently demanded the deportation of Serbian Jews. In 1943, he tried unsuccessfully to persuade Jozef Tiso to resume deportations of Jews in Slovakia.

In 1943 Veesenmayer was in spring and autumn in Hungary, to explore the political situation. He warned Ribbentrop and Hitler in front of a swing out of Hungary from the front of the Axis powers and advised to intervene. Before the German intervention in Hungary, he was of Hitler on 19 March 1944 to the Messenger, First Class, for “the official of the Greater German Reich” in Hungary and the SS brigade commander appointed. [4] 15 In a telegram dated April 1944 Ribbentrop told the head of the Reich Chancellery, Hans Heinrich Lammers, on 9 Occurred April 1944, a conversation between Hitler, Ribbentrop and Veesenmayer treatment on the structure of the economic affairs in Hungary had. [5]

On 2 Veesenmayer June 1944 concluded with the Hungarian Finance Minister Lajos Remeny Schneller d. 1946 from a payment agreement between Hungary and the German Empire. This stipulates that the 19th Reichskreditkasse Budapest for services of “joint warfare” from the March for the months of May, June and July 1944, respectively 200 000 000 Pengö be paid. It was no provision made for this “Hungarian war fund” should be paid back by the German Reich. [6]

In a telegram dated 13 June 1944, he reported to the Foreign Office: “transporting Jews from Carpathian region and Transylvania … with a total of 289,357 Jews in 92 trains of 45 cars finished” [7] On 15. June 1944 announced Veesenmayer Ribbentrop in a telegram that to this day some 340 000 Jews had been delivered to the Reich. He continued to provide forecasts that are doubled without traffic disruption, the number of deportations of Jews to the end of July 1944. He also announced that after final settlement of the Jewish question, the number of 900 000 Jews deported would be achieved. [8]

He also oversaw the Hungarian governments (Döme Sztójay, Géza Lakatos, Ferenc Szálasi, Gábor Vajna) and Admiral Miklós Horthy. Veesenmayer subordinate in his role as ambassador to Hungary to the Foreign Office. About his actions on the deportation of the Hungarian Jews, he reported, but mainly the head of the RSHA, Ernst Kaltenbrunner [9] The Independent Commission of Historians – Foreign Office says in its research report on work Veesenmayer. Joined “As with any other representative of the Foreign Office in Veesenmayer inhuman ideology and icy pragmatism. “[10]

In March 1945 he left Hungary and stood in the middle of May in Salzburg U.S. troops. At the Nuremberg Wilhelmstraßen process (case 11) was Veesenmayer judgment of 11 April 1949 for crimes against humanity, slavery and membership in a criminal organization, to 20 years in prison. With pardon of 31 January 1951 began, the U.S. High Commissioner John McCloy down numerous penalties, including the imprisonment of Veesenmayer to 10 years. In December 1951 he was pardoned and released from prison for war criminals in Landsberg. [11]

In 1953, the British sent intelligence that Veesenmayer relations Naumann circle had taken, a far-right organization led by former State Secretary Werner Naumann, [12] was the FDP infiltrate Nazi. Then Veesenmayer served as General Manager for Germany of Roubaix in northern France based company Pennel & Flipo. Until his death in 1977 he lived in Darmstadt. source: deutsche wikipedia, trans. by Google.


Auschwitz Report (2006) is a non-fiction report on the Auschwitz extermination camp by Primo Levi and Leonardo de Benedetti.

Whilst in a Soviet holding camp in Katowice in 1945, Levi and de Benedetti were asked by the Soviet authorities to document the living conditions in Auschwitz. De Benedetti was on Levi’s transport from Fossoli, near Modena, Italy. Both were left behind when the camp was evacuated and so their time at Auschwitz coincided exactly. De Benedetti was a medical doctor, though he only acted as a doctor in the final weeks of his time at the camp. His survival was truly amazing given that he was in his 40’s when he arrived, as normally those over the age of 30 were sent directly to the gas chambers on arrival.

Much of the report describes the facilities for treating the sick. Treatments were rudimentary, medicine was in short supply and the skill of the nurses was minimal. Normal practices of hygiene were ignored. Cross-contamination and infection were widespread. The hospital was only set up a few months prior to Levi’s arrival; there had previously been no medical treatment at all. Sick inmates worked until they collapsed, at which point they were beaten; if they moved they were sent back to work and if not they were sent to the crematoria.



For all this, Auschwitz Report provides an important corrective to the accepted view of Auschwitz. It is surprising to discover how many medical facilities were available to the inmates. Buna-Monowitz, unlike the main camp in Auschwitz-Birkenau, was not an extermination camp. The internees slaved for IG Farben, manufacturing synthetic rubber. The hospital wing was relatively extensive. Some drugs were available, even if they were scarce. There was an otorhinology and ophthamology clinic. Many of the severe depredations could not be treated and disease was rife, but it appears that the Germans made some effort to rehabilitate the wounded and ill, even if only to maximise their working potential.

Auschwitz Report is a small but significant addition to Holocaust documentation; it is a shame that its publishers could not emulate the high standard of rigorous testimony that Levi embodied throughout his life. source: wikipedia

Henryk Slawik a Polish diplomat also rescued several hundred Jews in Polish centres, schools and orphanages, and he deserves to be mentioned. After the Hungarian government issued racial decrees and separated Polish refugees of Jewish descent, Slawik started to issue false documents confirming their Polish origins and belonging to the Roman Catholic faith.
He was martyred , executed in Mauthausen, Austria by the Nazis.
On 17 April 1943, the Regent of Hungary, Admiral Horthy visited Hitler at Klessheim Castle to discuss the terms on which Hungary would remain in the war.

Horthy when reproached with his policy towards the Jews retorted that having deprived the Jews of nearly every means of getting a living, he could not “beat them to death”.

At this Joachim von Ribbentrop declared that they must either be killed off or sent to concentration camps. Thereupon Hitler delivered a monologue, recorded in the minutes of his interpreter Dr Paul Otto Schmidt.

“In Poland, this state of affairs had been fundamentally cleared up. If the Jews did not want to work, they were shot. If they could not work, they had to be treated like tuberculosis bacilli, with which a healthy body may become infected.

This was not cruel, if one remembers that even innocent creatures of nature, such as hares and deer, which are infected have to be killed so that no harm is caused by them.

Why should the beasts who wanted to bring us Bolshevism be spared more? Nations who did not rid themselves of Jews perished. One of the most famous examples is the downfall of that people who were once so proud, the Persians, who today lead a pitiful existence as Armenians.” [sic]

These minutes which are indisputably genuine contain Hitler’s only recorded outright admission of the massacres in Poland. It should be noticed that even in this bald statement, shooting is specified and that Hitler made no allusions to the death camps, unless the comparison to tuberculosis bacilli is to be regarded as an oblique reference to Zyklon B, which was used to kill vermin.

On 15 May 1944 when the main deportations began Baky reported that 320,000 were concentrated in the camps and ghettos east of the River Theiss. At Munkacs where 30,000 Jews were herded into a camp and a few miserable streets there was already a typhus epidemic.

some 380,000 Jews were deported by 30 June 1944…
Oberfuhrer Hans Ulrich Geschke declard dead 1945?
Otto Winckelmann, d. 1977
Max Juttner of the “Leadership Office” of the SS
Rolf Gunther
Bandi Grosz, a Jew involved in Hungarian intrigues.. .wrote a memoir on the topic.
Gabor Vajna, the new Minister of the Interior, was executed.
Admiral Horthy died in Portugal. It is claimed on this site that he didn’t approve of the deportations, but nor did he do much to stop them until it was too late, July 7, 1944.
Bayer sponsored Nazi SS Dr. Research on prisoners.
source: Bayer,
The Nazi Doctors, Lipton.Pharmacists, selections performed by, 174, 176, 197
· pharmacological testing 291 practice, that was never carried out — because it was impossible. One . . . selected only according to categories.” But the doctor was still central, Dr. B. emphasized: “He stood there and led the thing.”

the same time there was constant pressure from above toward maximum involvement in selections, particularly from the spring of 1944 when dentists and pharmacists were also ordered to take their turns on the ramp. One of those dentists later testified that his plea to Wirths that  .. p. 197

Eduard Wirths, as chief doctor, was the Auschwitz sponsor and facilitator of most of these experiments, particularly those in which there was interest from Berlin at a higher level. An example here is the continuous experimental activity of SS Captain Dr. Helmuth Vetter, a key figure in pharmacological “trials” in Auschwitz and elsewhere. He was employed for many years with Bayer Group WII of the I. G. Farben Industry, Inc., Leverkusen, and, at Auschwitz, retained his connections. He ran medical trials for Bayer in Auschwitz and Mauthausen (and possibly in other camps) on several therapeutic agents, including sulfa medications and other preparations whose content is not exactly known.*

Horst Fischer (1912–1966), nazi dr.

Carl-Ludwig Lautenschläger was arrested by the U.S. military government in 1946, and one year later he was charged with enslavement and mass murder in the I.G. Farben Trial at Nuremberg, but was acquitted in 1948; though the court was convinced that the pharmaceutical department had conveyed to the SS medications to be tested on prisoners, no individual guilt on Lautenschläger’s part could be proven a . After that, he was employed as a research associate at Bayer Elberfeld, where Ulrich Haberland helped many former I.G. Farben colleagues find new jobs. Carl-Ludwig Lautenschläger retired in 1952. He died in Karlsruhe on December 6, 1962. source:

Hans Kühne, d. 1969.
1923 three years later ordinary member of the Board of I.G..Farben. Member of the Working Committee of the Board of Directors and member of the Technical Committee and the chemicals Committee Hans Kühne, Deputy Board member of Bayer. in 1933, he took over the management of the factory in Leverkusen. in 1938, he received chaired of Committee of Southeast of the chemistry industry group. In addition, he held supervisory and management board positions in various companies, southern and Eastern Europe.[1]

Early 1945 Kühne was retired. in 1947 he was from the US military arrested and accused in the Nuremberg trial against i.g. Farben, but acquitted. He received an appointment at Bayer Elberfeld, where Ulrich HABERLAND many former I.G.. Farbem colleagues helped to new activities. Hans Kühne died in Lindau on February 18, 1969.


Dr Hans Delmotte, suicide. Nazi Dr.

Karl Knapp, Dr. med.  (23.3.1913-?) [SS-Sturmbannfuehrer] — NSDAP: 2034178; SS: 226015; service, concentration camp (Konzentrationslager – KL) Sachsenhausen 1936-1938; service, KL Mauthausen 1938-1939; service, KL Oranienburg 1939; service, SS 3rd Division “Totenkopf” 1940-1942; service, SS 1st Infantry Brigade 1942-1944 (The Camp Men p. 129).

Hans Wilhelm König (* 13 May 1912 in Stuttgart , † unknown) was a German SS Lieutenant leader and as a camp doctor in the concentration camps Auschwitz and Neuengamme used. Named by Eva Moses Kor as assisting Mengele in selections to the gas chambers.

the scientific Senate of the army medical service

Kurt Erich Willy Uhlenbroock (born March 2, 1908 in Rostock; † 7 August 1992 in Hamburg) was a German SS-Sturmbannführer and briefly an SS doctor at Auschwitz concentration camp.

On November 29, 1960, Uhlenbroock received parole, and his prosecution was discontinued because of lack of evidence and lack witnesses. On September 4, 1964, Uhlenbroock testified as a witness in the Frankfurt Auschwitz trial.[5]

Josef Kapfhammer (* 3. April 1888 in Nürnberg; † 27. März 1968 in Freiburg im Breisgau) war ein deutscher Apotheker, Chemiker, Mediziner, Ernährungsphysiologe und Hochschullehrer.

Kapfhammer, 1937 Member of the NSDAP, took part in the meeting on medical questions in distress and winter death on 26 and 27 October 1942, was where speaks about the “hypothermia experiments” in the Dachau concentration camp.[2]in 1944, he lost all opportunities and valuable work logs due to the destruction of his Institute. So he turned to special teaching and devoted himself to the rebuilding of the German Red Cross and founded the Red Cross blood donation center Baden-Baden.
After the end of the second world war, K.c joined the Denazification Committee of the medical faculty of the University of Freiburg.[2] The Corps Palatia Strasbourg awarded him in 1952, as well as in 1951 his brother Volker, the band.[3]in 1956 he became emeritus.

Georg Norin; Nazi Pharmacist, Auschitz. 31.08.1909.4 142 648. SS-Sturmbannführer-promotion on 09.11.1943, SS-Sturmbannführer d.R. Waffen-SS–promotion on 09.11.1943 r. Nazi
(He may appear on another page as well.) Died 1967 in Weil am Rhein, Germany.
dr Horst Thilo suicide in prison. (May be on another page).
To understand the corporate culture that motivates  chemical corporations to conduct poisonous chemical experiments on human beings,  it is instructive to examine the historic record of one of the industry’s  giants. Bayer’s history reveals a long and infamous record of human rights  violations, including slave labor and inhumane human experimentation.[20] [21] In 1948, the International War Crimes  Tribunal at Nuremberg found thirteen Bayer executives guilty of war crimes,  slavery, and crimes against humanity. The American Chemical Association notes  that all IG Farben pharmaceuticals were marketed under the Bayer trademark.[22] Throughout the Nazi  era, Bayer was the control center for IG Farben human experiments. Bayer’s  products – including drugs, pesticides, and nerve gases – were tested on  helpless death camp inmates.14

Holocaust survivor sues Bayer AG:

On February 17, 1999, a lawsuit was filed in U.S.  District on behalf of Eva Mozes Kor, one of 180 surviving twin children (out of  1,500) who had been subjected to medical experiments at Auschwitz. The suit  charged Bayer, of collaborating with Dr. Josef Mengele (the “Angel of Death”) to  commit medical atrocities for profit.[23]  The suit claimed that Auschwitz inmates were injected with toxic chemicals and  germs provided by Bayer “to intentionally make them sick in order to test the  effectiveness of its experimental medicines.”23 And the suit  claimed that Bayer officials personally monitored and supervised some of the  experiments. According to Irwin B. Levin, one of several lawyers who handled the  class action suit for the plaintiffs, Bayer paid Nazi officials to gain access  to those confined in the death camps and collaborated in Nazi experiments as a  form of “research and development.”

On June 11, 1999, ABC News 20/20 reported that new  documents not available to the tribunal at Nuremberg directly link Bayer to the  Nazi experiments. The documents are chilling evidence of the culture of  utilitarian ethics in which human beings had been reduced to commodities and  referred to as “test objects” A letter in which Bayer sales director,  Wilhelm Mann, praised Mengele’s experiments and promised to discuss financing  from the company:14 “I  have enclosed the first check,” Mann wrote. “Dr. Mengele’s experiments  should, as we both agreed, be pursued. Heil Hitler!”23 ABC reported that “Bayer says  there’s no evidence any money was actually sent.” ABC’s Brian Ross reported that  a longtime Bayer employee, Dr. Helmut Vetter was involved in testing Bayer  experimental vaccines and medicines on Auschwitz inmates. He was later executed  for giving inmates fatal injections. Levin stated: “Bayer actually performed  some of those atrocities.” He went on to say, “this case represents the worst  example of individual and corporate evil that the legal system may ever see.”[24]
2o. Coalition against BAYER-Dangers (CBG). Watchdog organization that publishes  information about global abuses by Bayer AG. Covers human rights and  environmental violations.

[21]  Germany:Farben to Create Slave Labor Fund, Associated Press Aug 23, 2000:

[23] ABC  News.20/20 Headaches for Bayer, June 11, 1999. (ABC News summarizing a  recent lawsuit filed by Holocaust survivors against Bayer for alleged abuses in  concentration camps);

[24] The case  against Bayer and other German corporations was settled out of court as part of  a comprehensive settlement in which Holocaust victims were awarded reparations  from Swiss banks and corporations, including Bayer.

Diarmuid Jeffreys, Hell’s Cartel: IG Farben and the Making of Hitler’s War Machine, Bloomsbury, 2009
Due to his role in Degesch, which included regular scrutinising of the company accounts, Wilhelm Rudolf Mann was privy to information regarding the vast quantities of Zyklon-B that the company supplied to the Schutzstaffel. He thus was also aware that the consumption rate at Auschwitz was ten times that which was needed for delousing. …but he claimed that he never considered any connection between this fact and the Holocaust before later still arguing that he had barely paid any attention to the company accounts in the first place. He personally agreed that IG Farben would finance the research work of Josef Mengele at Auschwitz…
Wilhelm Rudolf Mann, d. 1992. Barely served any punishment for crimes of Bayer in association with the Waffen SS Hygiene (Medical) unit.


IKL: Inspector of Concentration Camps; More nazi criminals

The release of this criminal is particularly galling:
Hans Stark (June 14, 1921, Darmstadt — March 29, 1991, Darmstadt) was an SS-Untersturmführer and head of the admissions detail at Auschwitz-II Birkenau of Auschwitz concentration camp.Imprisoned in 1965, released free from 1968 to 1991.

The Action Brandt was a Nazi program, which served from about 1943 to the creation of beds for hospitals and alternate hospitals. For this purpose, patient of the hospital and nursing homes have been relocated or killed. The agent named after the medical and healthcare Karl Brandt action was the successor of the Action T4.

need info:
SS-Hauptsturmführer Rudolf Eagles. aide, Monowitz. Rudolf Adler?
administrative leader of SS-Hauptsturmführer Engelbrecht von Bonin
Horst Bender. Leiter Hauptabteilung III (SS-Richter) in der Stabsführung des HA Persönlicher
Stab des Reichsführers-SS H. Himmler.
1.4.42 – 8.5.1945. Survived the war.
Hermann Pook (* 1 May1901 in Berlin , † 1983[1] ) was a German SS-Obersturmbannführer (1942) and as a senior manager of the dentist Dentists in concentration camps .
After his arrest, Pook was during the Nuremberg Trials in Process Economic and Administrative Main Office of the SS November 1947 by an American military court sentenced to ten years imprisonment. 1. He was pardoned and on 1 Februar 1951from the Landsberg prison for war criminals released. [3] Pook then practiced as a dentist in Hemmingstedt . [4] Frankfurt Auschwitz trial criminal case against Mulka and Others “, he was interrogated as a witness, his testimony on 19 November 1964 verlesen. [5] November 1964 was read.
Walter Stier, railway official responsible in the “Office 33” of the Directorate-General for the Eastern Railway (Gedob) for the Jewish deportations in “Resettlement trains” (SS term)
Hermann Richter (Arzt) (1915–??), österreichischer Mediziner und SS-Obersturmbannführer.
Franz Grassler, a Nazi administrator who liaised with Jewish leaders . No info.
October 7, 1944 uprising when members of the 12th sonder-kommando succeeded in  blowing up two of the four crematoria at Auschwitz II-Birkenau. We learn at the  end of the film that the ovens were never replaced and the significance of this  accomplishment can only be guessed at in terms of how many lives were saved  because the largest of the Nazi death camps had its capacity cut in half. David Olere was a surviving Sonderkommando. “TheGrey Zone.” (amazon)
Finally, for those interested in personal testimony, besides Filip Müller, who  appears in Lanzmann’s Shoah, author of Eyewitness Auschwitz – Three Years in the  Gas Chambers, there is the most recent: nside the Gas Chambers: Eight Months in  the Sonderkommando of Auschwitz by Shlomo Venezia (Wiley & Sons, 2009), The  Holocaust odyssey of Daniel Bennahmias, Sonderkommando Rebecca Camhi Fromer, and  the excellent work of Gideon Greif, We Wept Without Tears: Testimonies of the  Jewish Sonderkommando from Auschwitz, and the rare book, Scrolls of Auschwitz,  containing translations of the testimony buried in bottles and other receptacles  in the crematoria in Auschwitz.

The Sonderkommando of Auschwitz-Birkenau consisted primarily of Jewish  prisoners forced by the Germans to facilitate the mass extermination. Though  never involved in the killing itself, they were compelled to be “members of  staff” of the Nazi death-factory. This book, translated for the first time into  English from its original Hebrew, consists of interviews with the very few  surviving men who witnessed at first hand the unparalleled horror of the  Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp. Some of these men had never spoken of their  experiences before. Over a period of years, Gideon Greif interviewed  intensively all Sonderkommando survivors living in Israel. They describe not  only the details of the German-Nazi killing program but also the moral and human  challenges they faced. The book provides direct testimony about the “Final  Solution of the Jewish Problem,” but it is also a unique document on the  boundless cruelty and deceit practiced by the Germans. It documents the  helplessness and powerlessness of the one-and-a-half million people, 90 percent  of them Jews, who were brutally murdered in the gas chambers of  Auschwitz-Birkenau.
a few more nazis:
Paul Wegener (* 1. Oktober 1908 in Varel; † 5. Mai 1993 in Wächtersbach) war Gauleiter in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus.
Max Simon (born January 6, 1899 in Breslau; died February 1, 1961 in Lünen) was a German SS-Gruppenführer and Generalleutnant of the Waffen-SS during the second world war.[1] He was accused because of his involvement in war crimes in several States and twice, including once in absentia, sentenced to death.
Otto Kumm (born 1 October 1909 in Hamburg – March 23, 2004 in Offenburg) [2] was a German SS-Brigadeführer in the Waffen-SS. As such, he commanded SS units at various theaters of Eastern and South-Eastern Europe in the second world war. 1944-45 he was commander of the 7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division involved in numerous war crimes “Prinz Eugen”.[3] Kumm was one of the founders of the community on reciprocity of the former members of the Waffen-SS e.V. (HIAG).
Dr Ludwig Blies absent on other duties 8.4.63
Oskar Hock (* 31. Januar 1898 in Babenhausen; † 24. Juni 1976 in Leverkusen) war ein deutscher Arzt, SS-Brigadeführer und Generalmajor der Waffen-SS sowie der Polizei, Leitender Arzt der Konzentrationslager und Chef des Sanitätswesens der Ordnungspolizei.
Member of the SS and the SS medical service

 End 1958, he had kept himself against new inquiries and as a victim turned out, because his family had been expelled from her home in Berlin, and his books and a piano made him. He had no options as Diffamierter, to exercise his rights after serving what this new investigation would show.[11]
Because he himself promised a less work by the bureaucracy in the SS, he joined the SS in August 1936 (276-Nr. 822). His transfer to the Sanitätsstaffel of the SS-Verfügungstruppe (SSVT) Munich Dachau was already in August 1936.[6] After his transfer came to February 1, 1937, to Berlin to the SS Sanitätsstaffel of the SSVT. At the same time, he became Deputy of Commander of the Sanitätsabteilung the SSVT Friedrich Dermitzel and head of the SS Sanitätsschule. From August 1, 1938, he was a member of the staff of the Sanitätsabteilung of the SSVT of Dermietzel. A month later he was sent to the Sanitätsabteilung of the SSVT in Vienna. There, he worked as a Truppenarzt of SS-Standarte of Vienna with the I. served of the SS-Standarte “Der Führer”.[7] Hock was not satisfied with this transfer and felt at a disadvantage.[
Furthermore, the Reich physician SS Ernst-Robert Grawitz turned up and defended the attitude of Dermietzel compared to Hock. Grawitz burdened even Hock, because he was obviously overwhelmed as head of the Vienna Sanitätsabteilung of there kasernierte SS (Hock was appointed on 1 December to the leader of the Sanitätsstaffel and the SS doctor of SSVT-Vienna). Early October Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler and the Inspector of concentration camps of Theodor Eicke agreed that Hock skull should be used as the head of the SS Division autonomously. Hock, however, turned in a letter of 12 October 1938 on the SS personnel main office. This complaint has been communicated, with the recommendation to dismiss Hock, as troublemakers from the SSVT and the Allgemeine SS what writing learned Hock by Himmler on October 19, 1938, Himmler. Now Hock was penitent to Grawitz and with consent of Himmler was Hock on January 13, 1940 again in the SS recorded and assigned to the staff of the Reich physician SS in Berlin. From January 16 to April 15, 1940, Hock took the position of senior physician of the inspection of the concentration camps at Oranienburg. Then, Werner Kirchert assumed this position, while Hock was transferred to the chief physician in the General Inspectorate of the reinforced SSVT squirrel standards, located also in Oranienburg.[9]
Professor Lendle
The “inspection of the concentration camps” (IKL) was the central administrative and management authority for the Nazi concentration camps. Before the inspection was incorporated into the SS economic and administrative main office as “Office Group D”, he carried the title of “General Inspectorate of the strengthened SS Totenkopf standards”.
Inspekteur Richard Glücks
Stabsführer und Vertreter: Artur  Liebehenschel
Referent Politische Abt: Heinz Bungeler until  1.7.1940, d. 1943.
Leiter Verwaltung: Franz Kraus
Amt Kassenleiter: Heinrich  Klattenhopf
Unterkunftverwaltung: Georg Bartenschlager
legal director: Hellmuth Kiener Born Munich-16/1/1910
Leitender Arzt der IKL: Dr Werner Kirchert died by 1995.
Apotheker im  HSL: *Georg Norin  31.08.1909.4 142 648. SS-Sturmbannführer-promotion on 09.11.1943, SS-Sturmbannführer d.R. Waffen-SS–promotion on 09.11.1943 r.
Hock’s transfer to the health of the Waffen-SS in the command Office of the Waffen-SS (district I) at the SS leadership main office took place on August 15, 1940. Skull he was appointed the Division doctor in the SS Division on February 15, 1941. In this Division, he took part in the German-Soviet war until his dismissal on June 21, 1943. About his experiences in wounds under the conditions of war in the Soviet Union in 1941 and 1942, he wrote a report for the United States Army in 1947. As the doctor Hermann Eckert (born May 5, 1911 in Munich) of II battalion of the 1st Infantry Regiment early 1942 a report about the poor health due to poor diet wrote, Hock supported this position. Therefore, many soldiers died according Hock infections and occurred weaknesses of the circuit. When Himmler learned it, he forbade such reports that would contain truisms.
On June 21, 1943, Hock was recalled and used at the head of the General of the Waffen-SS in the Office Group D in the SS leadership Office. After intercession by Karl Gebhardt he assumed the Office of the Chief of the Ordnungspolizei, General from 1 September 1943 where he led also outside the line III of General in the Hauptamt Ordnungspolizei until April 10, 1944. In January 1944 Hock was ill at an inflammation of the liver, and as a result in jaundice, so the surgeon Friedrich Becker had to represent him. Hock knew it few months of serving in the Sanitätsamt of the Waffen-SS from April, before he SS Army Corps was appointed on August 23, 1944 the Korpsarzt of XIII. From 15 November 1944 until the end of the war in May 1945, he was deployed as a Korpsarzt at the II SS Panzer Corps.
Hock was prosecuted at the Nuremberg trials, nor otherwise before a German court in the post-war period. In the Nuremberg medical trial, he issued exonerating statements for Karl Gebhardt and the head of SS General Karl Genzken. His testimony of February 11, 1947 was documented.[2] During his internment in the US camp in Garmisch he wrote down his experiences in Russia that have been printed in 1947. In a statement of 17 January 1947, claiming to be appointed, against his will to the chief physician of the Ordnungspolizei and he would have been released by his request from this Office. Rather, it is right that his disease of liver resulted in the end of this administration. On May 10, 1948 Hock was sentenced Reichsmark Chamber of the Hiddensen saying court fined 10,000 by the 14, because he had been a member of a criminal organization. However, this punishment was suspended because he was compensated with the three-year rights from 1945 to 1948. After several attempts to repeal this conviction, a Committee on Denazification in Düsseldorf acquitted then in the summer him as discharged category V, have joined the Corps of the political leader of the NAZI regime.
Karl Schulz (born February 7, 1905 in Weitmar; d. February 2, 1989 in bad Berleburg) was a German politician (NSDAP).
From 1938-1944, he was Chief of operations in the Ghetto Litzmannstadt.
Karl Schulz, SS .. a different one, 1902.
In 1939 he volunteered as an SS-Obersturmführer to serve in MAUTHAUSEN and gunskirchen.

As the allies had approached the MAUTHAUSEN, he fled with his mistress, Neugebauer, who worked in the camp as a shorthand typist, in Czechoslovakia on the night of the 2nd on the 3 May 1945. He left behind his family. Schulz exchanged his uniform and was itself new Americans in the name of Karl Müller. Then he settled again in Cologne. Finally, he was in detention for ten years.[2]As Schulz long pre-trial detention is applied and a part of punishment adopted him, he could leave prison as a free man.

Dr. Werner Kirchert (d. by 1995) senior physician of the inspection of the concentration camps at Oranienburg. Mentioned above.

On 1 November 1933, he joined the SS at (Mitgliedsnr. 245,540), for which he was a part-time working as an SS doctor. On 1 May 1937 he joined the NSDAP (Mitgliedsnr. 5020760). From 1 June 1936 Kirchert was used full-time as a camp doctor in the concentration camp Sachsenburg. [1] Kirchert 1937 was camp doctor at Dachau and moved from there in November 1937 as a medical officer to the Buchenwald concentration camp , where he worked until the end of November 1938. Kogon describes him alongside Hans Eisele as one of the worst doctors in the Buchenwald camp. [2] Kirchert from 1 May 1937 represented the first Sanitary unit of the SS Death’s Head units Oberbayern and ran from 1 1937 November the sanitary unit of the SS Death’s Head units Thuringia. On 1 December 1938 he took over a command to the psychiatric clinic of the Berlin Charité . [1] Kirchert 1939, was made ​​a director of the Nazi killing center Grafeneck from. Kirchert’s proposal to head it was his former classmate, Horst Schumann. [3]

After the outbreak of the Second World War he was in October 1939 for the SS Division Totenkopf added, where he the second Medical Company initiated. From 1 April 1940 he was at the Inspectorate of Concentration Camps (ICL) was employed as chief physician and returned in August 1940 back to SS Division Totenkopf, where he served until February 1941. [1] In May 1941, he was the personal assistant of the Chief Medical leader Leonardo Conti. In early January 1943, he was chief physician in the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA) and was also deputy head of the Institute of Biology of the National Police Criminal Investigation . [2] In addition Kirchert was from 17 September 1943 as a senior consultant at the Higher SS and Police Leader used (HSSPF) Elbe. Kirchert was from mid-November 1944, with the use of Group H in Bratislava, used as group physician. [1]

After the war Kirchert was interned in labor and detention camps in Eichstätt. [4] Before the jury, the District Court Munich sentenced Kirchert on 11 June 1953 to four and a half years in prison. He later became manager of OWG-Chemie in Kiel . One of the prosecution of Würzburg initiated investigation of him, which was discontinued in 1995 after the death of Kirchert. trans. from German.
Karl Hermann Otto Heider, d. 1960.

1939, Heider resigned from the army in the rank of Lieutenant of the reserve. During the second world war, Heider was Chief of police of Münster from 1940 to 1942. Afterwards, he led the marriage Office in the race and Siedlungshauptamt(RuSHA) and was 1942 and 1945 Deputy of the head of RuSHA. From 1942, Heider became a member of the Volksgerichtshof as lay magistrates.[1]

After the German surrender, he put to a false name and entered Soviet captivity. Until 1950, he pleaded to his identity, and was released in a casting Chamber procedure as “Eberstein”. Then, he ran a restaurant in Aerzen and resumed then his work as an electrical engineer, before he died after a long illness at the age of 65.

Karl Otto Knott (born 5 June 1910 in Gottswalde , d.?) – Nazi criminal, paramedic SS in the concentration camp Stutthof and SS-Unterscharführer .
After training in camps in Oranienburg and Majdanek was sent to the Stutthof concentration camp, where he served in the years 1 942 – 1,944 as a paramedic SS. Jego His main duty was to make the selection and throwing Zyklon B into the gas chambers in which the murdered Jews . In addition, lethal injections to kill the prisoners, and took part in the executions by shooting. He was one of the biggest murderers in the Stutthof camp.

At the end of the war Knott stood before the courts twice West German as charged with crimes committed in Stutthof. In the years 1955 – one thousand nine hundred and fifty-seven sat in the dock with the camp commander Paul Werner Hoppe before the Court in Bochum . 5 January 1957 Knott was sentenced to three years and three months in prison. Another his trial was held in Tübingen in 1964 and sat in the dock also Otto Haupt and Bernard Lüdtke . The defendants were charged with participation in the murder of hundreds of Jews, prisoners of the Soviet and members of the Polish underground. . Knott the only one of the accused was acquitted.


more nazi criminals.

Bruno Streckenbach

October 10, 1955, in the Federal Republic of Germany without special editions as “Amnestierter” in the context of the recent release of prisoners. Then routes Streckenbach lived again in Hamburg and worked as a clerk and Manager at Ottenser ironworks GmbH. On 30 June 1969, he went into retirement.

A first German investigation was hired in September 1956 by the Hamburg Prosecutor’s Office stating, “also the further investigations have provided no evidence that the accused have under the rule of the Third Reich criminal offences committed, whose persecution still not would be barred”.

A renewed investigation led to an indictment by June 30, 1973, in the routes Streckenbach was accused for the murder of at least a million people. Due to an adjudicating at last instance opinion of the Gerichtsärztlichen service of the NHS in Hamburg, the Hanseatic Higher Regional Court rejected the main proceedings on September 20, 1974. Died 1977.

He united the SD and einsatzgruppen.

more Proof that Hitler ordered the Holocaust:
In the summer of 1941, Reichsfuehrer-SS Heinrich Himmler summoned SS-Obersturmbannfuehrer Rudolf Hoess, who served in several Nazi concentration camps, to a private conference, when Himmler said that Adolf Hitler had ordered “the final solution of the Jewish question”; and consequently, “whatever Jews we can reach” were to be executed “without exception” throughout the war. Himmler went on to tell Hoess: “We, the SS, must carry out that order. If it is not carried out now, then the Jews will destroy the German people.” Himmler then explained that Hoess was to wait for further instructions from Karl Adolf Eichmann. (Holo Levin 292; Fleming 47)
After Himmler’s experience, SS-Obersturmbannfuehrer Dr. Otto Bradfisch, head of Einsatzkommando 8 of Einsatzgruppe B, operating in the Minsk area, asked Reichsfuehrer-SS Heinrich Himmler who was taking the responsibility for the mass extermination of the Jews. Himmler told Bradfisch, “These orders . . . come from Hitler as the supreme Fuehrer of the German government and . . . they [have] the force of law.” Himmler later said the same thing in a speech to Einsatzkommando 8 and some security police. One of Reichsfuehrer-SS Heinrich Himmler’s command staff, Higher SS and Police Judge Horst Bender, also asked Himmler who was responsible for the “final solution” order. According to Bender, “Himmler categorically stated that this measure had been personally ordered by Hitler, out of political and military considerations, and it therefore stood above all jurisdiction, including SS and police jurisdiction.” (Fleming xxiv 51; Fleming 51)
Wilhelm Brake.neungamme
5 years.
Max Kirstein (born November 7, 1890 in Bernburg an der Saale, † unknown, and Max Kierstein written) was a skilled businessman, SS Master Sergeant and camp commander of the concentration camp Schillstraße, a subcamp of the Neuengamme concentration camp in Brunswick.
On 1 May 1937 joined the NSDAP and Kirstein 31 August 1939, in the Waffen SS. He was born on 1 November 1939 SS Sergeant and 1st July 1943 promoted to SS Master Sergeant.Kirstein was from November 1942 until August 1944 in concentration camps commando leader. He was supporting a cellulose factory in Wittenberg and later in Drägerwerk in Hamburg and was because of this experience, after which the sub-camp Schillstraße fifth in Brunswick November 1944 was completed, the local commandant determined.Kirstein was feared for his temper tantrums and turned his brutality especially against Jewish prisoners. He abused Jewish concentration camp inmates (lazy, cheeky, bold) with 3-F or as an inmate Hirsch Hecht reported with 4-F, when he described Jews: “If a Jew eats too much, he is fat and lazy, and finally even cheeky “. [1]He struck during his tantrums on sick Jews, which he did not do to the French, Russian, Latvian and Lithuanian prisoners. [2] In Stock Schillstraße was the food of the Büssing and issued by the attending detainees. This has been changed at the direction of Kirstein, and the food was out of the SS guards. This branched off a large part of the food. According to a salaried chief engineer, Heinrich Kamrad, so much so that the prisoners due to their constitution not been able to work effectively. Over here he had complained to the camp . It stands to reason that the SS men at Schillstraße stole the food, because in another case sent the SS guards of the camp Vechelde demonstrably stole food the prisoners had been sent by their own families. [3] Dortiger camp leader was under the command of Kirstein was Helmut Sebrantke, one of his most loyal followers. The French prisoner Georges Salan, who published the first book about French prisoners at Schillstraße in 1946, [4] estimated Kirstein as the sadists and criminals.Remarkably, the concentration camp Schandelah formed in Schandelah in the district Wohld. Although a subcamp of the Neuengamme concentration camp, the SS personnel was under Max Kirstein, of the region as a base manager acted [5] and was never held accountable for his actions to account.
Orchestra of Janowska death camp
 Scharführer Dosch
Administrator of the estate was of Baltic German SS Unterscharführer Heinrich Eiche. Disappeared after the war.
Maly Trostinec
–Rieder, commandant???
End page.

IKL, more nazis, 2.

photo of The orchestra.


1. Georg Werkmann… ? Nazi architect, Auschwitz Building central office.

Bischoff’s successor on the ground was from 1 November 1943 Werner Jothann .

2. Werner Jothann (* 18 May 1907 [1] in Eldenburg (goods) / Waren (Müritz) , † unknown) was a German civil engineer , of October 1943, the Central Construction Office of the Waffen-SS and Police Auschwitz led.

3. August Schlachter (Born 25 January 1901 in bar lovably District of Biberach– unknown) was a German architect, who worked in several concentration camps as a construction supervisor.

The studied civil engineer Schlachter early April 1933 the NSDAP (membership number. 2.339.579), and eventually also became a member of the SS. [1]

In the rank of a SS under band leader , Schlachter of May 1940 led the SS building Department KL Auschwitz/Upper Silesia, which was responsible for the construction of the main camp August until November 1941. [2] To the plans there made was the conversion of block 11 of designated building, in whose basement were Dunkelzellen and later. [3]

Shortly after Karl Bischoff , the planning of a POW camp, the later concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau, was transferred, this created the Central construction management of der Waffen-SS und Polizei Auschwitz O/Sin December 1941. Hans Kammler from the SS-Hauptamt management and economic believed August Schlachter was not up to the larger challenges. [4] Rudolf Höss later as a “good guy” lacks “any generosity” but characterized Saha. [4]

Schlachter was transferred to Natzweiler as construction manager to set up the local concentration camp Natzweiler-Struthof . He worked there until December 1942. [5] Then Schlachter in the Kiev construction inspection worked. In the autumn of 1943, he was named as Chief of the headquarters B-12 from the MITTELBAU Dora . in 1944 he was promoted to the SS-Hauptsturmführer (SS-Nr 128.820)[5] [6] .   Post-war period [Edit]   August Schlachter was after the war considered missing; a Denazification process was not carried out. Saha worked in agriculture and performed until 1954 in Biberach again as an architect.

I was reading in Gerald Reitlingers; SS Alibi of a Nation that : Between 10 & 12 June 1942, three trains carrying more than three thousand Czech Jews left Theresienstadt `to the east`. The trains were routed through the transfer stations of Ujasdow & Trawniki in Poland. Not a single Jew survived & and the trains went certainly to one of the extermination camps, probably Malo Trostinec in White Russia.
Babi Yar Sonderkommando, David Budnik, recalls:
“At the end of 1968, my past knocked at my door in the person of a postman. The letter he carried was completely unexpected to me. I was asked to testify to speak in front of the jury in Stuttgart on January 7th, 1969 at 9 o’clock. The charged were Sturmbahnfuhrer SS Gans Sohns, Hauptsturmfuhrer SS Fritz Zietlov, Hauptsturmfuhrer SS Walter Helsfgot and Sturmbahnfuhrer Fritz Kirstein [Friedrich Kirstein]. As it turned out it they were part of the group that designed crematoria in the concentration camps. It was they who financed and organized the cover-up of Babi Yar during the retreat.”
Helfsgott, acquitted.
Kirsten, acquitted.
Sohns, 4 years

Some of those involved in the killings were tried by the British in the Curio Haus in Hamburg in 1946. Trzebinski, Neuengamme commandant Max Pauly, Dreimann, Speck, Jauch and Frahm were convicted and given the death sentence. They were hanged on October 8, 1946.

Two of those directly responsible for the children’s suffering and murder, Kurt Heissmeyer and Arnold Strippel, escaped and remained at large. Strippel had served at other concentration camps before Neuengamme, including Buchenwald. He was recognized on the street in Frankfurt in 1948 by a former Buchenwald prisoner. He was tried for the murders of 21 Jewish inmates committed on November 9, 1939 as retribution for the failed assassination of Adolf Hitler at the Bürgerbräukeller in Munich by Georg Elser. Strippel was tried, convicted and sentenced to 21 life terms by a Frankfurt court in 1949.

In 1964, an investigation into his involvement with the Bullinghauser Damm School murders was begun by the Hamburg prosecutors office. The statute of limitations had run out for manslaughter so he had to be charged with murder. Among the criteria for murder it had to be proven that the accused acted cruelly, insidiously or with motive. In 1967 the prosecutor, Helmut Münzberg, dropped the charges for lack of evidence, stating that Strippel had not acted cruelly as “the children had not been harmed beyond the extinction of their lives”.

He was released from prison in 1969. After his release, he applied for a retrial, and in 1970 his original conviction was overturned and he was retried. At this retrial, he was convicted as being just an accessory to the Buchenwald murders and sentenced to six years’ imprisonment. Because he had already served 20 years in prison, 14 years longer than this sentence, he was compensated with 121,477.92 Deutschmarks.

In 1979, partly as a result of articles written by Günther Schwarberg, Strippels’ case was reopened. He was not reincarcerated, and in 1987 the case was abandoned by the Hamburg prosecutor’s office, owing to Strippel’s frailty.[12] Strippel died on 1 May 1994.

Kurt Heissmeyer returned to his home in Magdeburg in postwar East Germany and started a successful medical practice as a lung and tuberculosis specialist. He was eventually found out in 1959. In 1966, he was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment. At his trial he stated, “I did not think that inmates of a camp had full value as human beings.” When asked why he didn’t use guinea pigs he responded, “For me there was no basic difference between human beings and guinea pigs.” He then corrected himself: “Jews and guinea pigs”.[13] Heissmeyer died on 29 August 1967.

Karl Kaufmann (October 10, 1900 in Krefeld[1] – December 4, 1969 in Hamburg) was a Nazi Gauleiter in Hamburg—head of the Nazi Party, and government of Hamburg from 1933 until 1945.

Only a few have been tried for war crimes, such as Anneliese Kohlmann, who served as one of only six woman guards at Neugraben.
Hans Klein (born November 18, 1912 in Sacred Wood, † 21 November 1984 in Heidelberg) was a German pathologist and professor.Klein, PhD pathologist, was among Berthold Ostertag senior physician at Berlin Rudolf Virchow Hospital. [1] Together with Ostertag he obduzierte children in the Children’s Ward of the City Mental Hospital for children and adolescents Wiesengrund (Berlin-Wittenau) under the Child of euthanasia were killed. [2] in 1939 he became member of the SS [3] by 1944, Klein was a senior pathologist at the hospital SS Hohenlychen sanatorium, where he had been reassigned from the Virchow Hospital.[1] in January 1945, Klein took Hohenlychen before histological examination of the lymph nodes of 20 Jewish children who are victims of TB tests by the physician Kurt Heissmeyer at Neuengamme were. These kids were on the night of 21st April 1945 on Bullenhuser dam to cover up the crime hanged. [4] Klein collaborated with scientific Hans Nachtsheim.After the war he qualified in 1949 at the Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg & became a lecturer. From 1961 Klein taught at the University of Heidelberg as a professor, department head in 1965 at the Heidelberg Institute of Legal Medicine and a member of the Science Council. [1] Klein was not prosecuted after the war. trans from, Hans Klein
Krause, Hans (1904-?) [SS-Sturmbannführer] – intelligence officer, Action Group 1b (Einsatzkommando 1b); intelligence officer, 3rd Action Command (Einsatzkommando 3); service, Reich Security Main Office (RSHA); service, German Security Service (Sicherheitsdienst – SD) Krakow {arrested and put on trial 1960 by a West German court at Karlsruhe for war crimes committed Jun-Jul 1941 and Jan 1942-Sept 1943 at Kowno, Dünaburg, Rositten, Kiew (Kiev), Uman, Gut Michalowka (near Kiew), and (Arbeitserziehungslager – AEL) Kiew (Kiev), consisting of the mass shootings and gassings of Latvian, Lithuanian and Russian civilians; acquitted 20 Dec 1961 (JuNSV Verfahren Lfd.Nr.526; LG Karlsruhe 611220 [VI Ks 1/60]; BGH 630528 [1 StR 540/62]; Field Men p. 81).} same as : Kurt Krause???
Harder, Arthur Alexander
judgment of the Federal Court of Justice lifted; a later judgment could not be determined
about 20,000 Jews deported for extermination from Central Europe to Trostinets in 1942; 3,000 so-called banditry suspects, who were killed by gas in ten days in February 1943
The Sonderkommando 1005 blurred under SS-Hauptsturmführer *Arthur Harder ; October and December 15, 1943 the command of the prisoner was gassed then.[11]
Der stellvertretende Lagerkommandant Rieder überwachte die Verbrennungen.
Overall, only a minority of those involved in the killings was sentenced
Maly Trostinec who place, the least known is of all great destruction sites in Poland and the former Soviet Union. Differently than in Auschwitz or Majdanek only a few remains of the camp have been preserved, and there are only a few survivors. It is known no command structure, and an overview is not yet possible. So far has been researched in Western countries only insufficiently.
With increasing opening of the archives of the former Soviet bloc, hopefully even more information on the daylight come so that his true place among the other sites of mass murder can be assigned to the extermination camp of Maly Trostinec.
trials of sonderaction 1005 figures.
Kirsten, Fritz Karl
On November 19, 1943, after the final liquidation of the Janowska camp, a group of the surviving Sonderkommando members revolted. They succeeded in killing a few guards, and a number of their members escaped but were caught.
Friedrich Gramsch (* 23. Oktober 1894 in Braunsberg, Provinz Ostpreußen; † 1. Oktober 1955 in St. Augustin bei Siegburg
From 1933 to 1945, he was in the Prussian State Ministry, most recently as a Director in the Office of the Ombudsman for the four year plan [1], and made for himself there, although he did not belong to the NDSDAP, to the principal consultant of Hermann Göring in questions of internal reform of the Empire.
Gramsch [2] was questioned during the Nuremberg trials. A plan for the plundering of occupied France had been made out by him and was presented in the process [3]. Nothing is known about a detention and about his Denazification.
After 1945 was Garcha from 1947 to 1953 Director of the Landkreistag in Lower Saxony and held the post of the main Manager of the German County Association from 1953 to 1955.
Wilhelm Christian von Grolman (* 16. Juli 1894 in Schweidnitz; † 20. Juni 1985 in München) war ein deutscher Politiker (NSDAP), SS– und SA-Führer sowie Polizeipräsident von Leipzig.
From November 1933 to the end of the NAZI rule in the spring of 1945, Grolman was member of the Nazi Reichstag in which he represented the constituency of 7 (Breslau).Grolman, who reached the rank of major General of the police on January 1, 1942, was appointed police Chief of Leipzig from October 1942 acting from January 1, 1943.[2][3]After the war, he had his residence in Hechendorf am Pilsensee.
Latvia, Ostland, Baltics:
Hugo Wittrock (July 7 jul. / July 19 1873 greg. Laugø in (today Laugu ) on Saaremaa , Estonia province , † 25 August 1958 in Lübeck [1] ) was an insurance specialist , Baltic German politician and acting Lord Mayor of the City of Riga 1941-1944.
responsible for the 2 ghettoes in Riga.
In Rosenberg’s mediation Wittrock was after the invasion of the army in the Baltic States in 1941 as Acting Mayor of Riga (“City Commissioner” or district commissioner appointed by Riga city) and stayed until the withdrawal of the Germans in 1944 in the office. Als solcher unterstand er dem Generalkommissar (für Lettland ) im Reichskommissariat Ostland Otto-Heinrich Drechsler . As such, he was subordinate to the Commissioner-General (for Latvia ) in the Reich Commissariat Ostland Otto-Heinrich Drechsler



SS- und Polizeiführer
Erich Neumann’s (d. 1951) personal assistant, Professor Otto Donnerhad written the text of the unit

In the course of preparations for war against the Soviet Union, Neumann dealt with questions of the agricultural production of the conquered countries. While he believed in a lecture on April 19, 1941, at the Management Academy of Berlin, that due to lack of imports of feed these conquered territories for the surplus production would be more capable and therefore would grant areas. His personal assistant, Professor Otto Donner had written the text of the unit.[1
In the course of preparations for war against the Soviet Union, Neumann dealt with questions of the agricultural production of the conquered countries. While he believed in a lecture on April 19, 1941, at the Management Academy of Berlin, that due to lack of imports of feed these conquered territories for the surplus production would be more capable and therefore would grant areas. His personal assistant, Professor Otto Donner had written the text of the unit.

[10] On May 2, 1941 then also this topic regarding the Soviet Union  was the subject of a meeting by Neumann, Paul Körner and Herbert Backe. Neumann had been at the Wannsee Conference.

Otto Donner d. 1981, Wash. DC. He studied at the Institute for economic research in Berlin from 1925 to 1933. Of 1933 and 1934, Donner studied at the Institute of world economy at the University of Kiel. in 1935, Thunder joined the NS motor Corps. From 1935 to 1937, he worked at the Statistical Office. Donner was a lecturer at the Deutsche Hochschule für Politik in 1937.Otto Donner in the Empire of inspectorates, für das Kreditwesen worked from 1938 to 1939. In the years 1940 to 1943, he was personal assistant to Secretary of State Erich Neumann. From 1940 to 1943, he was Director of the Research Centre for defence economics of the Department four with Hermann Göring, the representative for the four year plan then. «The quarterly plan was an economic and social policy Department at their head a» small Central Office with little more than a hundred places stand. «By the individual Wirtschaftsresorts have been checked and Hermann Göring designs» elimination of defect layers and danger points made the vote of individual works, be. “should be.[1] in 1947, Donner received US citizenship and a professor in Washington.
From 1952 to 1956, Donner was Deputy Managing Director for the Federal Republic of Germany (at first for Yugoslavia) at the IMF. From 1954 to 1968, Donner was the Executive Director for Germany at the World Bank. Otto Donner was also Managing Director of the international development organization in 1960. [2]
Field Post 32/704 Kyiv, May 16, 1942 secret document of national importance! : SS Obersturmbannführer Rauff:

Bulkhead motor vehicles in groups D and C is finished. … I ordered … to disguise under the machine group D machines for living in, which in small machines ordered to make one small window on each side, and on the larger machines – two little windows like those we often see on the peasants’ houses in the village. These machines have become so famous that they are not only government officials, but also the civilian population called the “gas chambers”, only just emerging from one of these machines. In my opinion, these machines can not cover up and kept secret for any length of time. … . Gassing … often goes wrong. . As soon as possible to complete the procedure, the drivers always give full throttle. Вследствие этого казнимые умирают от удушья, а не засыпают, как это было предусмотрено. As a consequence, put to death die from suffocation and not fall asleep, as it was intended. My orders have led to what is now a particular installation lever death comes faster and moreover concluded peacefully asleep. . Distorted faces and feces were observed before, is no longer seen. In the course of the day I move in group B, where you can send me any further messages. [4] Dr. Becker, Untersturmführer SS [4]

Letter from the head of the Security Police and SD Ostland Hauptsturmfuhrer *Tryugesa on gas vehicles:

Transports of Jews who should be subjected to special disposal method, come every week to the management of the chief of the Security Police and Security Service of Belarus. Three gas cars that are out there are not sufficient for this purpose. Я прошу, чтобы прислали еще один газовый автомобиль (пятитонку). I ask that sent another gas vehicle (five-tonne). В то же время я прошу, чтобы переправили 20 газовых труб для трех автомашин, которыми мы располагаем (две — Диамонд, одна — Заурер), так как имеющиеся трубы уже пропускают газ. At the same time, I ask that transported 20 gas pipes for the three cars that we have (two – Diamond, one – Saurer), since the existing pipe is passed gas.

Field Post 32/704 Kyiv, May 16, 1942 secret document of national importance! SS Obersturmbannführer Rauff,

Berlin, Prinz Albrechtstrasse, 8.

Rudolf Siegert (born December 23, 1899, in statutes; died 24 April 1945 in Berlin) was a German jurist and SS leader.
*He was Rauff’s boss.

Kurt Krause (Nationalsozialist), († 1944 ?), Leiter des Ghetto Riga

May have died in 1944 , acc. to Deutsche wikipedia.

The occupants of the German ghetto made an effort to perform musical works and plays. There were many talented people among them. The Nazi commandant, Krause, and his staff, often attended and enthusiastically applauded the performances. The concerts and the more formal plays were given in the same factory-like structure which was used for sorting the effects of the victims of the various massacres and “actions” that took place in Riga and the rest of Latvia. For these events, Krause and other Nazis sat in the front row. Krause assisted the orchestra, by providing instruments, such as a cello (whose original owner had been murdered or worked to death at Salaspils), from the confiscated baggage from the transports.[38]


Oberstleut der Schupo Willy Suchanek was Polizeiadjudant RFSS. b. 1905. Testimony 1947 .
Himmler’s adjutant

nazi palestine .   book by mallmann and martin cueppers.


Lt Col Meyer Zermatt, abwehr

Paul Leverkuehn

Rudolf Roser

Heinz Jost

Walter Schellenberg

Dr Heinz Graefe

Dr Erich Hengelhaput

Peter Weirauch

Kurt Schuback

Heinz Tunnat

Herbert Hagen: mideast expert

Wilhelm Beisner, einsatz gruppe Zagreb, Croatia

Ludwig Moyzisch, Gestapo, Turkey

Kuno Schroeder

Fritz Mayer

Roman Gamotha

Dr Julius Berthold Schulze Holthus

Major Strojil

Grobba, Fritz

Leopold Itz elder von Mildenstein, advocated Jewish emigration to Palestin before the war in his articles; but later went with the change in orders. d. 1968

Mildenstein apparently worked as press officer for Coca Cola in West Germany until the public Eichmann hearings, in which Eichmann mentions him as “the specialist for the jewish affairs”.


Eberhard von Stohrer


Franz Schattenfroh

Werner Von Hentig, Mideast

Dr Karl Wuck


Wilhelm Melchers. Consul in Palestine.  No punishment. June 1953, MELCHERS took over the leadership of the German Embassy in Baghdad and Amman branch. In March 1957, he was appointed the Ambassador to New Delhi. Mid-1961 he was appointed as Ambassador to Athens, until he was retired in 1965. MELCHERS was awarded in 1954 the great Federal cross of merit with star. He died at the age of 71.

Julius Seiler

Cornelius Schwarz, however, a National Socialist from Jaffa, became Landesgruppenleiter of the Nazi Party for Palestine in October 1935.

Karl Ruff, became the first member and local leader of the Palestine National Socialist Party in January 1932

Walter  [Hans] Doehle, Consul in jerusalem

Franz Reicher-?, German News Bureau, Palestine

Hans Pieckenbrock

Helmuth Groscurth

Heinrich Hest

Erwin Lahousen

Franz Seubert

Hermann Erich Seifert

Timotheus Wurst, Nazi Consul in Jaffa.

Victor Freiherr von der Lippe

Nazi official Karl Kossack-Raytenau travelled through Palestine in 1938 as a special correspondent for the National Socialist paper “Der Angriff”. He wrote “The Arab recognized the threat posed by the Jew before the good natured German did, and he determinedly countered it with strength and passion. He fights the Jew whenever and however he can, and here in Haifa in particular the battle never ends”.

Raytenau d. 1949

Eberhard von Stohrer, Nazi amb. to Cairo, d. 1953.

Heinrich Wolff, Nazi ambassador in “Palestine.”

Stohrer wanted to make usable in particular Islam as a religion for the NS. He claimed that both ideologies “meet in many Islamic principles.” To implement he proposed a “Committee” alleged expert on Islam Orient Dept. in the AA, under direction of the Werner Otto von Hentig, formerly. Two other adventurers figures from the intelligence service environment, the doctor Peter shrumpf Pierron, [3], and Ladislaus Almásy had to submit this proposal. Almásy wanted to then again justify to the Caliphate under German suzerainty with al-Husseini at the top.[4]

Hentig, d. 1984 As a representative of the Foreign Office (VAA) at the command of the 11th Army, Otto von Hentig was between 1941 and 1942 rapporteur from the Crimean War.[1] He reported by detecting most probably Jewish graves in the Crimea in the summer of 1942 and criticize as only AAD for the murder of hundreds of thousands of Jews in the area [2]. The support of Mohammed was among his responsibilities later Amin al-Husayni, the Mufti of Jerusalem, whom he accompanied on April 6, 1945 from Berlin to Salzburg to Gustav Scheel, successfully escaping from the defeated Germany to help him. [3]

Dr. Pierron

Scheel, already on blog

Almasy, already should be on the blog. Hungarian.

Hans-Joachim Weise, Nazi associated with Walther Rauff, gas vans.

The most important book to read on the Palestinians, the Arabs and the Nazis
has, unfortunately, not yet been translated into English. Klaus-Michael
Mallmann and Martin Cuppers’ Halbmond und Hakenkreuz. Das “Dritte Reich”,
die Araber und Palestina, translated Crescent Moon and Swastika: The Third
Reich, the Arabs, and Palestine was published September, 2006.

Dr. Klaus-Michael Mallman, the author of many books on Germany and
the Holocaust, is Privatdozent fur Neuere Geschichte at the University of Essen.
Martin Cuppers is a researcher at the Forschungsstelle Ludwigsburg, and has
published an important book on the command staff and office of the
Reichsfuhrer SS, the Head of the SS, Heinrich Himmler.

Einsatzgruppe [Special Taskforce] F already were listing Jewish dwellings in
Palestine to be confiscated as accommodations for German troops once the
Afrika Korps arrived in Palestine.

Hermann Schlöf , gebietskommissar Lithuania.

Gebietskommissar Gerhard Erren, an official of the Ministry of the East . death, unkn.

Alfred Gille (* 15. August 1901 in Insterburg/Ostpreußen; † 18. Februar 1971 in Rheinbach) war ein deutscher Politiker (GB/BHE) und Jurist.

A Nazi official named Egon Haensell was in charge of the Jelgava SD office.[4]

Walter Altemeyer, mentioned.

Walter von Medem d. 1945.



The reichenau order

Georg Leibbrandt (September 5, 1899 — June 16, 1982) was a scholar and politician in the Nazi Party. He’s probably on the blog. But amazing how he was freed in 1950. RK Ostland
Walther Bierkamp

A unit of Einsatzgruppe D, Kampfgruppe Bierkamp, was named after him when he was its leader.

He joined the Nazi Party on 1 December 1932 and was drafted into the SS on 1 April 1939. He was employed from February 1937 to February 1941 as head of the criminal police in Hamburg. From February 1941 to September 1941 he worked in Düsseldorf and from there he was sent to Paris as head of the Security Service of Belgium and Northern France where he remained until April 1942. From 30 June 1942 to 15 June 1943, he was commander of ‘ Einsatzgruppe D , the mobile slaughter which worked in the south of the Soviet Union. He was then sent to Krakow as chief of police and security services until February 1945. In this capacity, as well as overseeing the “cleansing of the Jews” in Cracow, he organized the evacuation before the advancing Soviet forces. In his famous circular of 20 July 1944, he ordered the evacuation of prisoners from the prisons and the Jews from the armaments industries. If, he wrote, unforeseen circumstances have made it impossible to transport the inmates, they were to be killed on the spot and he would have to make the bodies disappear by burning them, by blowing up the sheds, or by other means.

In the final weeks of the Third Reich, Bierkamp was in Stuttgart and then in Breslau. It is unclear whether he was killed or committed suicide in Hamburg on or after April 16, 1945. [Translated from Italian] [1]

  1. ^

Text of the Reichenau order

[6th Army] Army H.Qu., 10 October 1941

Subject: Conduct of Troops in Eastern Territories.

Regarding the conduct of troops towards the Bolshevistic system, vague ideas are still prevalent in many cases. The most essential aim of war against the Jewish-bolshevistic system is a complete destruction of their means of power and the elimination of Asiatic influence from the European culture. In this connection the troops are facing tasks which exceed the one-sided routine of soldiering. The soldier in the Eastern territories is not merely a fighter according to the rules of the art of war but also a bearer of ruthless national ideology and the avenger of bestialities which have been inflicted upon German and racially related nations.

Therefore the soldier must have full understanding for the necessity of a severe but just revenge on subhuman Jewry. The Army has to aim at another purpose, i.e. the annihilation of revolts in hinterland, which, as experience proves, have always been caused by Jews.

The combating of the enemy behind the front line is still not being taken seriously enough. Treacherous, cruel partisans and degenerate women are still being made prisoners-of-war and guerilla fighters dressed partly in uniform or plain clothes and vagabonds are still being treated as proper soldiers, and sent to prisoner-of-war camps. In fact, captured Russian officers talk even mockingly about Soviet agents moving openly about the roads and very often eating at German field kitchens. Such an attitude of the troops can only be explained by complete thoughtlessness, so it is now high time for the commanders to clarify the meaning of the pressing struggle.

The feeding of the natives and of prisoners-of-war who are not working for the Armed forces from Army kitchens is an equally misunderstood humanitarian act as is the giving of cigarettes and bread. Things which the people at home can spare under great sacrifices and things which are being bought by the command to the front under great difficulties, should not be given to the enemy by the soldier even if they originate from booty. It is an important part of our supply.

When retreating the Soviets have often set buildings on fire. The troops should be interested in extinguishing of fires only as far as it is necessary to secure sufficient numbers of billets. Otherwise the disappearance of symbols of the former bolshevistic rule even in the form of buildings is part of the struggle of destruction. Neither historic nor artistic considerations are of any importance in the Eastern territories.The command issues the necessary directives for the securing of raw material and plants, essential for war economy. The complete disarming of the civilian population in the rear of the fighting troops is imperative considering the long vulnerable lines of communications. Where possible, captured weapons and ammunition should be stored and guarded. Should this be impossible because of the situation of the battle, the weapons and ammunition will be rendered useless. If isolated partisans are found using firearms in the rear of the army drastic measures are to be taken. These measures will be extended to that part of the male population who were in a position to hinder or report the attacks. The indifference of numerous apparently anti-Soviet elements which originates from a “wait and see” attitude, must give way to a clear decision for active collaboration. If not, no one can complain about being judged and treated a member of the Soviet system.

The fear of German counter-measures must be stronger than threats of the wandering bolshevistic remnants. Regardless of all future political considerations the soldier has to fulfill two tasks:

1.) Complete annihilation of the false Bolshevist doctrine of the Soviet State and its armed forces.

2.) The pitiless extermination of foreign treachery and cruelty and thus the protection of the lives of military personnel in Russia.

This is the only way to fulfill our historic task to liberate the German people once and for all from the Asiatic-Jewish danger.


(signed) von Reichenau

Field Marshal


Bartov, Omer. Hitler’s Army: Soldiers, Nazis, and War in the Third Reich(New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).

Nurrenberg Translation of Document No. NOKW-309 Continued Copy AOK 6, Sect. Ia-File No. 7.

Military History of the 20th century.   the Reichenau Order.


von Rundstedt , wiki bio. below:

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  • Von Rundstedt attended a conference in Berlin at which Hitler addressed senior officers. He made it clear that the ordinary rules of warfare would not apply to the Russian campaign. “This is a war of extermination,” he told them. “We do not wage war to preserve the enemy.” This gave the generals a clear warning that they would be expected not to obstruct Hitler’s wider war aims in the east – the extermination of the Jews and the reduction of the Slavic peoples to serfdom under a new herrenvolk  of German settlers.

  • As part of this strategy, the Commissar Order was issued, which stated that all Red Army commissars were to be executed when captured.[40]Rundstedt testified at Nuremberg about the attitude of the Army to this Order: “Our attitude was unanimously and absolutely against it. Immediately after the conference we approached Brauchitsch and told him that this was impossible… The order was simply not carried out.”[a lie-]

    1. Messenger, p. 133. This quote is a paraphrase of Hitler’s actual words, as recorded in General Halder’s diary.
  • Hans-Heinrich Dieckhoff (23 December 1884 — 21 March 1952) was a German diplomat best known for his service to the Nazi regime.

    Dieckhoff was born in Strasbourg, Alsace-Lorraine. From 1937 to November 1938 he served as German ambassador to the United States, until recalled in response to the American recall of its ambassador in protest over the Kristallnacht. He was the last to occupy the post until after the war. In 1943 he assumed the post of ambassador to Spain.

Yugoslavia, the Holocaust, and Hitler. More info.


–link to-

Nazi and NDH Plans.

..for the intended extermination of the Serb people. Soon, the Nazis began to make clear their genocidal goals, as shown by the speech Hitler gave to Slavko Kvaternik, at their meeting on 21 July 1941:

The Jews are the bane of mankind. If the Jews will be allowed to do as they will, like they are permitted in their Soviet heaven, then they will fulfill their most insane plans. And thus Russia became the center to the world’s illness… if for any reason, one nation would endure the existence of a single Jewish family, that family would eventually become the center of a new plot. If there are no more Jews in Europe, nothing will hold the unification of the European nations… this sort of people cannot be integrated in the social order or into an organized nation. They are parasites on the body of a healthy society, that live off of expulsion of decent people. One cannot expect them to fit into a state that requires order and discipline. There is only one thing to be done with them: To exterminate them. The state holds this right since, while precious men die on the battlefront, it would be nothing less than criminal to spare these bastards. They must be expelled, or – if they pose no threat to the public – to be imprisoned inside concentration camps and never be released.”[16]
Max Luburic was in charge of all camps. (executed by a Yugoslav in Spain).
 Commandants at Jasenovac :
Ivica Matkovic (died in Argentina in a traffic accident) 1/1942 – 3/43
Dinko Sakic (d. 2008, emprisoned in Croatia) Asst to Commandant 1942; April 44 -Nov 44, Commandant.
Filipovic-Majstorovic (executed by Partisans)
The Priest Ivica Brkljacic was in Summer 1943,   Commandant at Jasenovac.

Antun Vrban (Ante Vrban) was one Commandant at Stara Gradiska (executed after the war).

Other concentration camps were established in Sisak, Stara Gradiska, Djakovo, Lepoglava, Loborgrad. In all, there would be 22 concentration camps in the NDH, almost *half of which were commanded by Roman Catholic Croatian priests.

The Archbishop Stepinac reported that over 235,000 Serbs had been converted by Croatia’s Priests to Catholicism. He did save some Jews, and spoke out against crimes committed by the Nazis and NDH. Yet he was uncomfortably close to Ante Pavelic, head of NDH.

Kvaternik, agreed that the NDH would arrest the Jews, take them to railheads, and pay the Germans 30 Reich marks per person for the cost of transport to the extermination camps in the east. The Germans agreed that the property of the Jews would go to the Croat government. He had been head of all camps until 1943, when he fled the country.

Mijo Babic Giovanni, kia July 1941.

Siegfried Kasche, Nazi in charge of Yugoslavia, executed 1947, by Yugoslavia. According to the Nuremberg Tribunal, a conference was held in the German Legation presided over by Siegfried Kasche, “at which it was decided forcibly to evacuate the Slovenes to Croatia and Serbia and the Serbs from Croatia into Serbia. This decision results from a telegram from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Number 389, dated 31 May 1941”.[3]He reported to Berlin on April 18, 1944 that “Croatia is one of the countries in which the Jewish problem has been solved”.[4] wikipedia, Siegfried Kasche

Kasche wrote the following: “The Poglavnik asks General [Paul] Bader to realize that the Jasenovac camp cannot receive the refugees from Kozara. I agreed since the camp is also required to solve the problem in deporting the Jews to the east. Minister Oscar Turina [fate?] can deport the Jews to Jasenovac”.
The chairman of the interim government was Mile Budak,[1] other members were Mirko Puk (Deputy Leader), Andrija Artuković, Branko Benzon, Jozo Dumandžić, Mladen Lorković, Ismet Muftić, Marko Veršić, Đuro Vranešić and Milovan Žanić.
Meho Mehičić (1904-1967)
Oscar Turina — Minister of Interior, Named by Siegfried Kasche as responsible for deportation of the Jews.
Himlija Bešlagić  (1899-1977)
Petar Pejačević  (1908–1987)
Stijepo Perić (12 October 1896 – 12 June 1954)
Branko Benzon (29 August 1903 – September 1970) was a Croatian physician, diplomat and politician.
Ismet Muftić (born 1876, Žepče – died 1945, Zagreb) was the first Croatian Islamic mufti.
Božidar Kavran was a member of the Croatian World War II Ustaše regime, executed 1948
Mate Frković,(1901–1987)
Jozo Dumandžić  (1900–1977)
Stjepan Hefer  (1897–1973)
Hilmija Bešlagić  (1899–1977)
Ivan Petrić  (1897-1968)

SS Hauptsturmfuehrer Franz Abromeit was sent to supervise the deportations to Auschwitz. From August 13-20,1942, 5,500 Jews from the NDH were transpoted to Aushwitz on five trains from the Croat concentration camps at Tenje and Loborgrad and from Zagreb and Sarajevo.

Reichsfuehrer-SS Heinrich Himmler was on a state visit to Zagreb in May,1943 when two trains on May 5 and 10 trasported 1,150 Jews to Auschwitz.

The number of Jewish victims was between twenty and twenty-five thousand, most of whom were murdered there up to August 1942, when deportation of the Croatian Jews to Auschwitz for extermination began.


General Paul Bader (d. 1971) in charge of extermination of the Serbians.
Ernst Fick (SS-Angehöriger) (1898–nach 1945), deutscher General der Waffen-SS
The camp administration in times used other Ustaše battalions, police units, Domobrani units, auxiliary units made up of Bosnian-Muslims, and even the aid of German and Hungarian Nazis.

In the Wannsee Conference, Germany offered the Croatian government transportation of its Jews southwards, but questioned the importance of the offer, saying that: “the enactment of the final solution of the Jewish question is not crucial, since the key aspects of this problem were already solved by radical actions these governments took”.[17]

In addition to specifying the means of extermination, the Nazis often arranged the imprisonment or transfer of inmates to Jasenovac.[18][19] Kasche’s emissary, Major Knehe, visited the camp in 6 February 1942. Kasche thereafter reported to his superiors:

Capitan Max Luburic, the commander-in-action of the camp, explained the construction plans of the camp. It turns out that he made these plans while in exile. These plans he modified after visiting concentration-camps installments in Germany.[20]

  • The Belgrade Museum of the Holocaust keeps a list of the names of 80,022 victims (mostly from Jasenovac), including approximately 52,000 Serbs, 16,000 Jews, 12,000 Croats and 10,000 Romanies.[citation needed].
  • Antun Miletić, a researcher at the Military Archives in Belgrade, has collected data on Jasenovac since 1979.[142] His list contains the names of 77,200 victims, of which 41,936 are Serbs… [others claim the no. of victims are much higher]

…In several instances, inmates were immediately killed for confessing their Serbian ethnicity and most considered it to be the only reason for their imprisonment.[35] The Serbs were predominantly brought from the Kozara region, where the Ustaše captured areas that were held by Partisan guerrillas.[36] These were brought to the camp without sentence, almost destined for immediate execution, accelerated via the use of machine-guns.[37] The exact number of Serbian casualties in Jasenovac is uncertain, but the lowest common estimates range around 60,000 people, and it is estimated to be the most significant part of the overall Serbian casualties of World War

number of Jewish casualties is uncertain, but ranges from about 8,000[39] to almost two thirds of the Croatian Jewish population of 37,000 (meaning around 25,000).[40]

Jasenovac camp also consisted of a unique camp for children in Sisak. Around 20,000 children of Serbian, Jewish and Roma ethnicities perished in Jasenovac.[46]

The Ustaše in Jasenovac also imprisoned numerous people of other ethnicities, including Ukrainians, Romanians and Slovenes.[47] (source: wiki, Jasenovac)

The inmates would perish from the hard work. Work in the brickworks was hard labor.

Water: Jasenovac was even more severe than most death camps in one respect: a general lack of potable drinking-water. Prisoners were forced to drink water from the Sava river.

When gypsies arrived in the camp, they did not undergo selection, but were rather concentrated under the open skies at a section of camp known as “III-C” [brickworks]. From there the gypsies were taken to liquidation in Gradina, working on the dike (men) or in the corn fields in Ustice (women) in between liquidations. Thus Gradina and Ustica became Roma mass grave sites. Velika Kustarica: According to the state-commission, as far as 50,000 people were killed here in the winter amid 1941 and 1942.[108] There is more evidence suggesting that killings took place there at that time and afterwards

…In the same spirit, (Commandant) Miroslav Filipović-Majstorović, once captured by Yugoslav forces, admitted that during his three months of administration, 20,000 to 30,000 people died.[124] Since it became clear that his confession was an attempt to somewhat minimize the rate of crimes committed in Jasenovac, having, for an example, claimed to have personally killed 100 people, extremely understated, Miroslav’s figures are evaluated so that in some sources they appear as 30,000-40,000.[125]

During World War II, the Croatian Ustasha government, being an ally of Nazi Germany, implemented the same methods of genocide. Only Serbian children were kept in the concentration camp.[5] Catholic nuns of the Holy Congregation were the guards in the camp.[6]

Apprentice work – 26.08.2010 20:00
JASTREBARSKO – Modest set in Jastrebarsko in Croatia, which was attended by 40 members of anti-fascist movement, on Thursday for the first time in 68 years obelježeno release of children from the only concentration camp for children in World War II.
Children’s camp in Jastrebarsko was placed at four locations and to the monastery where there were about 400 children, the former castle of Count Erdedija where there were 200 children, building the economy where there were 280 girls and River village where it was located about 1,500 children.
Children are brought from the camp Jastrebarsko Stara Gradiska where the Ustasha offensive ended after the Kozari and Potkozarje.
Michael Veljić, which was passed as a twelve year ordeal Jastrebarsko, recalls that the cruelty of the children started back in Okucani where the unbearable heat Trpana the wagons in which the whole day traveling to Zagreb without water and unable to defecate outside, which is smtrt caused a lot of children.
“After arriving in Zagreb, and we were cut the dressed in Ustasha uniforms. We slept in barracks on the straw, and soon it appeared that dysentery and killed many children,” the Veljić.
He said that according to the records of the local undertakers Ilovara Francis, who was buried from Jastrebarsko children, 1018 children were buried, and it is estimated that there are a total of about 1,500 died.
He said that the camps are managed by nuns, and the cruelty of the Mercedes allocated. Unfortunately, Veljić said that liberation of children from the camps 26th August 1942nd year did not bring freedom to all children, because partisans were unaware of the location of the camp in the village of River.
According to him, the sad fate of the children who suffered because of illness are not able to walk further to Kordunu already deployed in homes in the Holy Jani, where the Ustashi offensive that followed re-captured and returned, and children who are caught in the village Pećno killed and thrown into a pit Jazovka.
Gojko Knezevic, also one of the surviving inmates, remembers how the nuns beat children birch branches dipped in salt water or vinegar, which today has some kind of fear when it meets a nun.
In marking the anniversary of the liberation of children in Jastrebarsko, except Deputy Mayor of the municipality Aleksandra Stanic, who said that residents “have nothing to do with what happened in the camps,” none of the officials did  appear.
The event was  accompanied by not  any one news crew from Croatia, there were no inhabitants, lacks opijelo for the victims, not on a single yellow candle, but was laid a few wreaths and lit lanterns in front of a modest number of monuments in the cemetery (trans from Serbo-Croatian)

Completely falling for the communist deception, the “Croatian National  Committee” dispatched former Ustase (Major) Ljubo Milos (ex-second in  command of the Jasenovac concentration camp, and former commander of the  Lepoglava prison; cousin of the infamous Ustase Colonel Vjekoslav “Maks”  Luburic), former Ustase  (Major) Ante Vrban, and former Ustase (Corporal) Luka Grgic into Croatia.
They were equipped with a powerful  radio and a code book, and had orders to make contact with a “Krizari” group on  the Papuk Mountain (near Slavonska Pozega, Croatia). Upon successful contact  with the “Krizari”, the group was to advise the “Committee”, and an armed group  of high-ranking and experienced Ustase was to enter Yugoslavia, and take over  command of the upcomming uprising in Croatia.
Milos´ group successfully  entered Yugoslavia through Hungary, and made its way to Papuk. However, the  “Krizari” that they met up with on July 1947, were in fact UDB agents in  disguise, who had walked the forested plateau for days to meet up with the  group, and Milos and Vrban were arrested, while Grgic was killed while offering  resistance. Using the code-book found on Milos, the UDB after 13 attempts made  contact with the “Committee”, and lured several more of the command groups of  Ustase into Yugoslavia.
By the end of August 1948, when “Operation  Gvardijan” came to an end, a total of 96 Croatian anti-communists had been  arrested. Some of the groups even came before the agreed time, but were captured  nevertheless. Among the captured Croats was Bozidar Kavran, founder of the  Croatian National Committee. All the captured men were held in the old jail in  Savska Ulica Street in Zagreb, which was soon overcrowded with exile Croats.  They could be broken down as follows:
– 36 Ustasha officers – 28  Ustasha Junior officers – 13 Ustasha without any rank – 12 former  members of the Ustasha Civil Police – 1 former member of the Gestapo – 1  former Cetnik intelligence officer

About 7 arrested Ustasha were ex-commanders or in other duties in the  concentration camps Jasenovac and Stara Gradisca, and about six of them were  known as war criminals. In the trial held in 1948 in Zagreb
– 43  were sentenced to death, 20 by hanging (Ljubo Milos, Ante Vrban, Bozidar Kavran,  Mime Rosandic and others) and 23 by shooting. – 2 were sentenced to lifelong  prison – 9 were sentenced to between 15 and 20 years in  prison

was responsible for most of the murders..
executed 1946, says he took orders from Ivica Matkovic and Max Luburic.
In July 1941 he was promoted to General of Artillery and Military Commander in Serbia appointed, where he was ordered to “immediate start of the offensive campaign against the communist terrorist gangs.” Am 10. October of that year gave him General Field Marshal Wilhelm List command to combat resistance groups called hostage transit camp, set up for the hostages to shoot if necessary. [1]
October 1943 until August, the barber had taken over command of the XXI. Mountain Army Corps and was initially give the leaders reserve set, and March 1944 then retired.

General Paul Bader, named, as Nazi responsible for NDH:

Bader lived after the war in Emmendingen. . At a hearing on 3 Januar 1964 January 1964 he claimed to have known nothing of hostages by the armed forces or military personnel. [2]

Hans Helm(  – 1946 )Biography

Hans Helm was in charge of deportation of Jews to concentration camps.

Instead of retreating with rest of German army in 1945 he stayed behind hiding in Zagreb apartment of his mistress which worked for him as secretary during the war. In 1946 after over a year of hiding, Helm exited apartment for the first time but was recognized and arrested.

Trailed in Belgrade in December 1946 with other SS and Gestapo officials and sentenced to death by hanging together with August Meissner, Wilhelm Fuchs, Josef Hahn, Ludwig Teichmann, Josef Eckert, Ernst Weimann, Richard Kaserer and Friedrich Polte.

Hans Helm

see also:

names of the camps within NDH:

Brozica – est. Aug 1941, closed Apr. 1945. -part of Jasenovac Ciglana – est. Aug 1941, closed Apr. 1945. -part of Jasenovac Danica  -**Martin Nemec and Nikola Herman Dakovo (around 3,000) – transit site for Croat Jews  whom Croat authorities turn over to the Germans for deportation to Auschwitz,  est. Sep. 1941- Mar 1942, closed Oct 1942.
As to the number sent from the “Danica” in other camps in the battle ranges from 2,500 to 3,000, and ** Nicholas Herman, commander of the camp, the public in July 1941st when it was removed, a drunken boast that in 2500-2700 by Lika Serbs. If we add to the Jews, Croats and other inmates, a figure of 5,000 may be considered as acceptable. source: serbian wikipedia
Gospic -Stjepan Rubinic, Milan Staraček, Janko Mihailovic.
During the months of May, June and July 1941, in Gospić, around 1,000 women and children arrived every day. It is estimated that the pit that is near the village of Jadovno contains around 35,000 remains of prisoners. Ustaše Juco Rukavina, Jurica Frković, AND Stjepan Rubinić, members of Tomljenović family and others.

Jadovno, source: Јадовно sr.wikipedia.
Gornja Rijeka – camp for children
Gospic-Jadovno (around  35,000 to 40,000 casualties) – est. spring 1941, closed Oct. 1942
Jadovno was the first Ustasha death camp and that he was assigned the primary role: the mass destruction of the Serbs.
Jasenovac I-IV (around 500,000)  Aug. 1941, Ustase establish the Jasenovac camps Krapje, Brozica, Ciglana, Kozara  and Stara Gradiska, closed May 1945 when Yugoslav partisans overrun Jasenovac.
Stara Gradiska (Jasenovac V) – est. Aug. 1941, winter of 1942-43 was  converted into a concentration camp for women, closed Apr. 1945.
Ustasha camp commander *Ante Boban, Stara Gradiska
According to performed leachate, only in this camp since 1941. to 1945. killed or murdered in various ways, 75 000 men, women and children. “SUBNOR” Stara Gradiska claims that the camp killed over 80 thousand victims. source:
Jastrebarsko (1018) – children’s  concentration camp , Max Luburic (asssassinated)

About 1,300 inmates were transported to Jasenovac. But the children’s camp Jastrebarsko, between 12th July 1942 – 26 August 1942nd passed the 3336 children, of which more than 2,000 from Mt. The camp was managed by nuns of the Congregation of St.. Vincent de Paul. Partisans liberated detainees and shot some of the leaders and teacher at the camp.
Kerestinac Koprivnica – est. spring 1941, closed Oct.  1942. Krapje – est. Aug 1941, closed Nov. 1941. -Jasenovac
Kruscica – est. spring  1941, closed Oct. 1942
Lepoglava (around 1,000) -*Ljubo Miloš (who later commanded Jasenovac), Mirko Matijević and Nikola Matijevic Gadžić.
Stupačinovo camp was formed in early July [1941]. , The camp was operated by the Ustasha Major *Ivan Devcic Pivac, commander of the camp salt in the Adriatic island of Pag,  deputy was a Catholic priest from Brušane, Ivica Brkljačić.

The commander of the camp in Sisak and Caprag was *Ljubomir Šešeglija.
A few days after the attack of the German Empire on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia on April 6, 1941, Wehrmacht and Ustaše occupied the city of Sarajevo. In May 1941 the Croatian and the Roman Catholic priest ** Božidar Brale the use of the Cyrillic alphabet in Sarajevo banned.The Ustaše prohibited the Serbian Orthodox Church, and all clergy, which could get hold of them were taken to concentration camps and killed most of them. Only a few Orthodox priest in Sarajevo survived the second world war.
According to data gathered by Serb fighters in Bosnia, in Gradina was killed and buried over 360,000 people.  Gradina,
Sorry for the duplications, but this is what I found out:
fate of nazis and ustashe mentioned on this and other pages:
Ljubo Milos, executed
Luka Grgic , ex.
Mime Rosandic , ex.
Lovro Sušić, d. in Venezuela 1972
Ivica Matkovic (died in Argentina in a traffic accident) 1/1942 – 3/43
Ivica Brkljacic
Stanko Šarić
Jakob Dzal
Ante Vrban, executed
Mijo Babic Giovanni, kia July 1941
Oscar Turina – mentioned by Siegfried Kasche as in charge of deportations of Jews
Ivan Devčić , camp commander aka “Pivac” (Born March 16, 1904 in Lukovo Sugarje near Karlobag,  Croatia – Died January 28, 1974 in Buenos Aires, Argentina).
Viktor Gutic executed
Meho Mehičić (1904-1967)
Petar Pejačević(1908–1987)
Stijepo Perić (12 October 1896 – 12 June 1954)
Branko Benzon (29 August 1903 – September 1970) was a Croatian physician, diplomat and politician.
Ismet Muftić (born 1876, Žepče – died 1945, Zagreb) was the first Croatian Islamic mufti. listed also on:, Holocaust, part II
Božidar Kavran was a member of the Croatian World War II Ustaše regime, executed 1948
Mate Frković,(1901–1987)
Jozo Dumandžić(1900–1977)
Stjepan Hefer(1897–1973)
Hilmija Bešlagić(1899–1977)
Ivan Petrić(1897-1968)
Dr. Djuro Ivković. In charge of Serbian matters.
Martin Nemec
Nikola Herman  aka Nicholas Herman,
Stjepan Rubinic,
Milan Staraček,
Janko Mihailovic.
Ante Boban [Anton Boban?]
Mirko Matijević
Nikola Matijevic Gadžić.
Ljubomir Šešeglija.
more names listed :
Drago Jilek,  kidnapped 1949 by Titoists
Dr. Filip Crvenković
Bojnik Mato Mandušić.
Heinrich Danckelmann, Born: 02 Aug 1887 in Hardenhausen by Warburg Died: 20 Oct 1947 in Belgrade (Executed)
Franz Abromeit,  b. 1907, declared dead 1964….
General Paul Bader, d. 1971
Ernst Fick (SS-Angehöriger) (1898–nach 1945),
Major Knehe
Paul Bader, 1971
Hans Helm executed
Walter Kutschmann, SS Captain  d 1986 frequent wartime travel companion of fashion  designer Coco Chanel and himself responsible for thousands of killings in  Poland, who escaped to Argentina in the plain robes of a Carmelite monk
Karl Günther. his opponent.
Felix Landau (May 21, 1910, Vienna, Austria – 1983), was a SS Hauptscharführer, a member of an Einsatzkommando during World War II, based first in Lwów, Poland (today Lviv, Ukraine), and later in Drohobycz. He was a “central figure in the Nazi program of the extermination of Galician Jews“.[1] He is known for his daily diary and for temporarily sparing the life of the Jewish artist Bruno Schulz in 1942.
NEW: Willy Friedrich, ex. 1947
Đorđe Kosmajac
Božidar Bećarević, (d 1950) 3 serb Policemen in charge of camps
Theo Keyser,
chief of the Military Administration in Serbia by
Dr..Justus Rudolf Friedrich Danckwerts (* 4. Juni 1887 in Pleß, Oberschlesien; † 27. Mai 1969 in Hannover) war ein deutscher Jurist, Verwaltungsbeamter und Politiker
Vladimir Velmar-Janković (Serbian Cyrillic: Владимир Велмар-Јанковић; August 10, 1895 – August 12, 1976) was a Serbian writer and member of Serbia‘s World War II quisling government.
Werner Lorenz (October 2, 1891 – March 13, 1974) was SS head of the Hauptamt Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle (English: Main Welfare Office for Ethnic Germans) (VOMI) an organization charged with settling ethnic Germans in the German Reich from other parts of Europe. Released, 1955.
Franz Neuhausen was the special plenipotentiary for economic affairs in the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia d. 1966, released 1953.
Helmuth Förster (19 April 1889  – 7 April 1965) was a highly decorated General der Flieger in the Luftwaffe during World War II.  in charge of occupied Serbia.
Felix Benzler, German consul in Belgrade, d. 1977

national socialism and the mideast


Max (Freiherr) von Oppenheim (July 15, 1860 in Köln – November 17, 1946 in Landshut) was a German ancient historian, and archaeologist, “the last of the great amateur archaeological explorers of the Near East.”. [ read the wikipedia pages on this man]

Oppenheim made his last trip to the Orient. Little is known of the trip, though the purpose was reportedly to resume his dig in Syria before his permit expired.Still, there are some questions about whether there was more to it than that. The trip was paid for by a special fund administered by Hermann Göring, the head of Germany’s air force and leading Nazi, who collected stolen paintings and antiques from all over Europe.Once back in Germany, Oppenheim lived in Munich, where he witnessed the demise of the Third Reich in person. His finds had been bombed to bits in Berlin, and he had few treasures left to his name. Soon thereafter, in 1946, he died of old age.[5]

News site for the Orient

Headquarters of the news agency of the Orient, Wall Street 45/46

The news site for the East (short int ) was during the First World War in the Middle East operating unit of the German General Staff and the Foreign Office . She was pro-German propaganda activities in the countries of the East and British Indiaresponsible and fulfilled at the same timeintelligence tasks.

With little success, the news agency went to great Islamic faith to move soldiers from the French, British and Russian armies to overflowing. POWs Islamic faith at the instigation of the message body in the ” Halfmoon Camp concentrated “in Berlin.Here Islamic practices such Essgebote or wereRamadan explicitly taken into account and built the first mosque on German soil for the prisoners. “Guest speakers” from Turkey tried to agitate the prisoners and to persuade to change sides.

The news agency supported nationalist movements in the Middle East countries to ensure that the German position in the Middle East and Transcaucasia to strengthen and the Entente powers, France , Britain and Russia to weaken. The politicization of the term ” jihad “in the Islamic world is partly due to the propaganda activities of the intelligence agency.

The activities of the intelligence agency still impact on the German alliance policy in the Middle East. In the national states of Egypt, Israel and Turkey are like during the First World War, the local ethno-nationalist movements important allies, while the Germans ethnically mixed,Francophone and some non-Muslim peoples of the Levant, especially in Syria and Lebanon , suspicious and strange have remained.

History and Structure [ Edit ]

Idea and situation [ Edit ]

Max von Oppenheim – initiator of the NFO – in Arab dress.

The relations between Germany and the Ottoman Empire were at the beginning of the 20th Century very well. While the German military missions provided for a modernization of the Turkish Army, was awarded the prestigious German-Ottoman major project, the construction of the Baghdad Railway remote parts of the multiethnic state, opened up. The rising superpower Germany tried to win in the Turks as allies. The Ottoman Empire was on the ground, however: The European Powers said because of the ongoing economic and political decline of the ” sick man of Europe “. The ” Eastern Question “if persist, the Ottoman Empire and divided as colonies and would disintegrate so was an important aspect in the foreign policy of imperialism .

In July 1914, started the first world war . The Germanorientalist and diplomat Max von Oppenheim (1860-1946) gave on this occasion in October, the Foreign Office a memorandum entitled “Memorandum on revolutionizing the Islamic territories of our enemies.” In it he wrote:

“First and foremost we currently have to think of our self-defense to exploit Islam for us and strengthen these forces by now. […] The perfidy of our opponents also gives us the right to resort to any means that may lead to a revolution in hostile countries. [1] ”

– Max von Oppenheim, October, 1914.

Oppenheim had collected as a German diplomat and amateur archaeologist in the Middle East a lot of experience and was a foreign policy expert on the Ottoman Empire. He saw great potential in the possibility, among Muslims a holy war ( Jihad , Arab. جهاد) against the Ententepowers France , Britain and Russia to kindle in order to improve their own war situation.Oppenheim saw propagandistic measures and an approach of the German Army in the Ottoman Empire as a necessary pre-conditions of a revolution. For the coordination of these projects, he suggested the creation of a news site which would be composed of Orientalists, Arab or Turkish native speakers and trained lecturers and “Adjusted truthful war reports (calls, etc.)” should work out and send. [2]

The memorandum Oppenheim came to the Under Secretary Arthur Zimmermann to ChancellorTheobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, and Emperor Wilhelm II during the Emperor, to whom much was keen to win the Ottomans as allies, the plan looked benevolently ruled divided opinions in the Foreign Office. In particular, the liberal diplomat and East expert Friedrich Rosen , an opponent Oppenheim, urgently warned not to incite religious fanaticism. [3] However, since theGeneral Staff under Helmuth von Moltke promoted decided the plans in November, the foundation of the “news site for the East” by the Foreign Office and the Section on the Deputy General Staff. [4] This was under the direction of the diplomat Rudolf Nadolny , who since the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Central Powers on 3 November was responsible for the Cooperation of NFO with the military.

Financial resources for the NFO were provided from the general budget of the Foreign Office propaganda available. The monthly financing was 5,000, which was increased by an “iron reserve fund for extraordinary tasks” on 8000. This sum was not enough by far, which is why Oppenheim contributed funds from his personal assets. The German headquarters of NFO was first in five rooms of the Berlin Imperial Colonial Office housed. However, the extension of duties made ​​a move to the Tauentzienstraße 19a soon required. At the end of the war were used by NFO 32 rooms. [5]

Organization and functions [ Edit ]

First World War in oriental room – States involved

  • Allied and Allied
  • Central Powers

The propaganda among the Muslims of Russia, theFrench colonies and the British Empire in favor of the German war was the central task of the NFO.This area was divided into four areas:

  1. Propaganda on the fronts
  2. Propaganda among Muslim prisoners of war
  3. Propaganda in the colonies of the Entente
  4. Propaganda in the allied countries and the German Empire

The NFO was their status after neither an authority nor a private company. Their secret cooperation with the Foreign Ministry and the General Staff gave her half but official. In the organization they resembled a university faculty : In addition to the line there was a law firm and a press office. There were six divisions, edited legal, Turkish, Persian, Arabian, Indian and Russian affairs. In addition, the editors of the newspaper and the prisoners were New Orient equated the departments. The entire organization was up to the head of the institution, in the early years so Max von Oppenheim. To zoom in close to the Muslim population and to facilitate the work, each native speakers were employed in the departments concerned.

One of the first activities of the NFO Orientals in Berlin at the beginning of the war were summarized in committees that make up national organizations for the peoples of the Middle East were formed. For example, the “Indian Independence Committee,” the “Persian committee in Berlin” and “created Committee for the Independence of Georgia “. These organizations were in constant contact with NFO. Oppenheim also suggested the establishment of a Georgian and a Tatar scholarship fund of the “German-Georgian Society” and building a “German-Persian society”. [6]

The NFO possessed several subsidiary organizations, including the so-called “news room organization” at the German embassy in Constantinople, which was the representation of the message body in the Ottoman Empire. During the First World War were numerous “news rooms” liaison offices of the NFO, established in the region, such as in Tbilisi , Mosul ,Damascus and Jerusalem . For coordination between Berlin and the places in the East, the German embassy was responsible. So were daily multilingual reports of the German General Staff the way deep into the Middle East. [7] to disseminate propaganda publications available to the news agency has its own sales office in Zurich and was in close contact to some bookstores in Lausanne , Amsterdam , The Hague and Stockholm . In this way the German war propaganda should find consideration in the neutral countries. [8]

Besides the actual propaganda activities, the NFO also went to other tasks. Thus the maintenance of personal contacts with oriental circles in the German Empire, the Ottoman government and the neutral countries of great importance. In addition, a newspaper archive Affected by the East was established that especially the Foreign Office was available and other official bodies could provide information in Berlin. To this end, NFO watched the Oriental, European and American press and gave periodic overviews of Russian, Tatar, Caucasian , Turkish, Persian and Indian press out. This press facilitated the work of German diplomacy and the General Staff. The NFO was active also as official censorship of the Orient-related writings, films, and even letters to the Foreign Ministry and the General Staff. Similarly, the correspondence of the Muslim prisoners of war were subjected to censorship. [9] In addition, the news took place in the German press influence in order to achieve this a “more deliberate choice of words” in the context of Islam and the Ottoman Empire. [10]

Personnel Structure [ Edit ]

The news agency initially sat down “from some long ago with Oppenheim somehow connected persons” together. [11] They were working on a collegiate basis as possible voluntarily and sometimes even free of charge together. The further progress of the war, the stronger the institutional character of the NFO. In 1915, 15 German and 20 oriental people were employed in the message body. [12] There were also occasional translator eleven and eleven other employees. In 1918, the total staff consisted of 59 persons, including several office servant and messenger. The staff were mostly German Orientalists, diplomats or journalists .

Line of the message body [ Edit ]

Period of time Director of the NFO
November 1914 – March 1915 Max von Oppenheim (1860-1946)
March 1915 – February 1916 Karl Emil damage of Schowingen Binger (1877-1967)
February 1916 – November 1918  Eugen Mittwoch  (1876-1942)

In March 1915, Max von Oppenheim, the founder and initiator of the news agency, was appointed to the German embassy to Constantinople. For this reason, he appointed his assistant Karl Emil Freiherr von Bingen damage Schowingen indefinitely to his representative.Damage Binger was a diplomat and lawyer, but had already during his studies and developed a strong interest in Oriental Studies at Martin Hartmann learned Persian and Turkish. Until the formation of News saddle point Binger was at the Imperial Legation in Tangier ( Morocco have worked) as an interpreter. With the takeover of the management of the NFO it was the title of “Consul “award. Binger damage remained until 22 February 1916 in the office before he was transferred to the Foreign Office to the German Consulate General in Jerusalem. He was succeeded by Eugene on Saturday. Wednesday was no longer semi-officially appointed by Oppenheim himself, but commissioned by the Foreign Office. Wednesday was a professor of Islamic Studies and directed the NFO until its dissolution at the end of the war.

German employees [ Edit ]

Among the German people were the influential orientalist Martin Hartmann, Helmuth von Glasenapp and Willy Sparrow . Martin Hartmann taught Arabic at the Oriental Institute since 1887 in Berlin and sat down as a co-founder of the “German Society for Islamic Studies” for the recognition of Islamic studies as a separate scientific discipline. The company was the world of Islam out as a club member. For his appointment to the news agency, his former student Karl Emil damage Binger was used by Schowingen. [13] Other staff included a native of Switzerland, journalist Max Rudolf Kaufmann (1952 in Bonn, director of the East Unit of InterNationes ), the above contacts with the press in the German Reich and the neutral countries possessed, and Nahum Goldmann , later president of the World Jewish Congress , who was then working as a writer German propaganda writings. Kaufmann’s father ran a front company in Zurich, the “Orient Publishing”, the propaganda writings of the news agency of the neutral Switzerland sales. [14]

The young orientalist Helmuth von Glasenapp had reported the outbreak of war volunteered for military service, but later had to return from the front, just a few weeks due to an injury. Nevertheless, in order, as he wished to pursue an “essential war work,” he turned to the personal acquaintance of his father Otto Georg von Glasenapp Bogislaf , the liberal Secretary of the Colonial Office Wilhelm Solf . Solf referred the young Glasenapp to Max von Oppenheim, who founded the NFO at this time. Because of his knowledge of Indology Oppenheim took him into his staff. Glasenapp was responsible for the implementation of the propaganda in British India in the message body and had good relations with the Indian National Congress . At the same time oriental prisoners of war were part of his Responsibilities: He wrote the lyrics for the German prisoners newspaper. [15]

A connection between the German employees of NFO was on the Seminar for Oriental Languages ​​in Berlin. This prestigious academic institution has produced many eminent Orientalists and made ​​for an exceptionally good voice training numerous German diplomat and colonial administrator. The seminar had in the educational landscape held a privileged position and was operated jointly by the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia. The funds came from the budget of the Foreign Office. The Department of Oriental Languages ​​in the Empire was a cadre of German diplomacy in the Ottoman Empire and thus for the NFO of paramount importance.

Oriental employee [ Edit ]

Salih aš-Sharif at-TUNISI – employees of the news agency of the Orient

The approximately 20 employees of the news agency oriental tried by a move to the German Empire, that enjoyed a certain popularity in the region to better pursue their own interests: This was a fine line between patriotism and desire for independence on the one hand, and collaboration on the other. The management of the NFO therefore always remained suspicious and supervised the activities of this employee group very closely. The news agency tried to turn in various ways to recruit Muslim operatives. Some came on the recommendation of the Ottoman side, others were from the communities of the Eastern exiles, including in Switzerland, recruited by employees of the NFO.

Among the Orientals, who cooperated with the NFO, the Tunisians Salih aš-Sharif at-TUNISI (1866-1920).This came from a traditional family of scholars since 1889 and was a professor at the Zitouna Universityin Tunis . In 1906 he went as a result of the French occupation of Tunisia into exile. He emigrated first to Constantinople and later to Damascus . During this time he established contacts with major figures of the Ottoman Empire, such as Ismail Enver . This gave him the Ambassador Hans von Wangenheim , the activity of the intelligence office in Berlin. Along with Karl Emil damage Binger from Schowingen he traveled as an advocate to the Western Front , where it was trying to move Muslim soldiers of the French army to desert. [16] was later Salih aš-Sharif at-TUNISI for German propaganda in the ” vineyard stock ” for Muslim prisoners of war in Zossen responsible. [17]

The German POW camp presented the most important field of activity for the Oriental employee dar. where they spread, for example, as imams propaganda news agency. In addition to the “vineyard camp” in Zossen, in which this task has been mostly perceived by Tatars, existed inWunsdorf the ” Halfmoon Camp “with over 30,000 Muslim prisoners. [18] There, the Algerian Rabah Lieutenant Būkabūya worked for the Germans. He had defected and joined the Entente under the pseudonym El Hadj Abdallah as a preacher and author of propaganda leaflets.Another significant oriental employees of NFO was Abd al-Azeez SAWIS (1876-1929). After his education at the Al-Azhar University in Cairo , he was editor of al-Liwa ‘ , the central organ of the Egyptian independence movement, and become subsequently been repeatedly taken prisoner by the British. For the news agency since 1916, he was in Berlin, the journal The Islamic worldout. [19]

Propaganda of the news agency [ Edit ]

Propaganda [ Edit ]

The truth about the religious war , propaganda brochure the news agency

To the propaganda of the news site for the East included leaflets, Views, war reports, magazines and newspapers, books, brochures, picture-and even movies. [20] By the end of 1915, the NFO had issued 386 different publications in 20 languages. The choice of the means of propaganda was based always on the respective application. Accounted for the largest share of the leaflets that were dropped en masse on the fronts of aircraft to enemy positions in which Muslim soldiers were suspected. The target groups were the North Africans in the French army (Zouaves and Turcos ), besides also Indians in theBritish Army as well as Georgians and Central Asians in the Imperial Russian Army . German propaganda in allied Ottoman army was however strictly forbidden. [21]

Brochures and books should exert influence on public opinion, especially in the neutral countries.The largest part of the nfo publication was a translation of a comprehensive war chronicle. From 1916 appeared Orient issue of image work The Great War in pictures in Arabic, Turkish, Persian and Urdu. [22] This did not come all the publications written by staff of the news agency. Many texts have been written anonymously or originated by Muslim scholars and were only checked by the NFO for their suitability as propaganda and published thereafter.

The influence of the press was another aspect of the propaganda activity. For this reason, Max von Oppenheim in 1916 participated in the founding of an Arabic-speaking, German-friendly newspaper called Al Sark in Damascus. Since that year the Persian newspaper published in Berlin Kaweh in cooperation with the intelligence office. In addition, the NFO called two of their own, official organs into life: the correspondence sheet and the journal The New Orient .

Deutsche wiki, trans from Geramn.

Karl Emil Freiherr von Bingen damage Schowingen (* September 271877 in Gernsbach , † April 4 1967 in Baden-Baden ) was a German diplomat and orientalist.


Damage Binger from Schowingen studied from 1897 at the University of Heidelberg law . During this time he developed a strong interest in Oriental Studies . Therefore, he decided after the completion of his law studies at theSchool for Oriental Languages ​​in Berlin with Martin Hartmann Persian andTurkish to learn.

1901 Binger joined damage of Schowingen in the diplomatic service and was first interpreter at the Imperial Legation in Tangier ( Morocco ). On 22 March 1915 he was appointed Max von Oppenheim his successor as head of theintelligence office for the Orient . In 1916, he became the German consul inJaffa appointed. He had until the end of this post World War stopped. 1918 to 1924 he was in the Orient Department of the German Foreign Office operates.In 1931 he joined the NSDAP in.

In 1924, he finally retired at the age of 47 years from the active duty and devoted himself to Oriental studies. He authored significant publications on theSeldschukenwesir Nizam al-Mulk , whose writings he translated from the Persian into German. In 1967, shortly before his death, he published his memoirs under the title of “world historical mosaic fragments. Experiences and memories of an imperial dragoman. ” deutsche wiki

Eugene Mittwoch (* December 4 1876 in Schrimm in Poznan , † November 8 1942 inLondon ) was a German orientalist. He is considered a founder of modern Islamic studies in Germany and as a major Jewish scholar.

Mittwoch initially intended, rabbis and to be graduated from the Rabbinical Seminary inBerlin. In 1899 he received his doctorate at Edward Sachau . His habilitation was in 1905.During the First World War led Mittwoch’s news site for the East as the successor of the founder Baron Oppenheim and Karl Emil damage bingers of Schowingen .

After a first job at the University of Berlin in 1915-16 and a brief appointment at the University of Greifswald 1917, he was from 1919 until his dismissal by the Nazi government in 1935 professor of Semitic Studies at the University of Berlin. During this time he also acted as a major Jewish scholars, among others, he was an academic teacher of the legendary “Rav,” Rabbi Joseph Ber Soloveitchik . Was given emeritus regularly that Mittwoch, 1935 and later still received emoluments of the Berlin University, was on personal intervention of Benito Mussolini attributable. Mittwoch was the leading experts Abyssinia in Europe and thus as a scientist working for the military in Ethiopia Italians of considerable importance. Between 1910 and 1930, made ​​Mittwoch young Falasha and was an important member of the Aid Association of German Jews . He served as past chairman of the Society of Promotion of Science of Judaism , and was also Managing Director of the Central Association of German Citizens of Jewish Faith . As one of the first German Jews  Mittwoch spoke modern Hebrew .

During the 1930s Mittwoch  was head of the Berlin office of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee . He emigrated to France in 1938 and in 1939 went with his family to London. His mother was killed in the concentration camp Bergen-Belsen.